Plasma Membrane – Biochemistry Exam

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Plasma Membrane – Biochemistry Exam

The key terms of Biochemistry Exam include, Plasma Membrane, Cell, Function, Glucose, DNA, Lipids.


The _____________ ______________ separates the inside of the cell from the outside, one cell from another cell.

plasma membrane


the membrane must be rendered semipermeable but in a very selective way. This ______________ ______________is the work of proteins that are embedded in the plasma membrane or associated with it

selective permeability


The plasma membrane of a plant is itself surrounded by a ______ _______

cell wall


The cell wall is constructed largely from ___________, a long, linear polymer of glucose molecules

cellulose


The inner substance of the cell, the material that is surrounded by the plasma membrane, is called the ___________.

cytoplasm


The cytoplasm is the site of a host of biochemical processes, including the:

initial stage of glucose metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein synthesis.


the cytoskeleton is a network of three kinds of protein fibers—________ _____________, __________________ _____________, and ________________—that support the structure of the cell, help to localize certain biochemical activities, and even serve as “molecular highways” by which molecules can be shuttled around the cell

actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules


a key difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is the presence of a complex array of intracellular, membrane-bounded compartments called ____________ in eukaryotes

organelles


The largest organelle is the_____________, which is a double-membrane-bounded organelle

nucleus


The ___________ is the information center of the cell, the location of an organism’s genome.

nucleus


The nuclear membrane is punctuated with ________ that allow transport into and out of the nucleus.

pores


catalysts

agents that enhance the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently affected themselves


proteins catalysts are called

enzymes


every process that takes place in living systems depends on:

enzymes


primary function of nucleic acids:

store and transfer information


what do nucleic acids contain?

the instructions for all cellular functions and interactions


nucleic acids are constructed from only four building blocks called:

nucleotides


a nucleotide is made up of:

five carbon sugar either deoxyribose or ribose, attatched to a heterocyclic ring stucture called a base,
and at least one phosphoryl group


there are two types of nucleic acids:

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)


genetic information is stored in:

DNA, the “parts list” that determines the nature of the organism


DNA is constructed from __________ deoxyribonucleotides. differing from one another only in the __________ structure of the __________

4 ,ring, bases


the four bases of DNA are:

Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine


the information content of DNA is the sequence of nucleotides linked together by ________________ linkages.

phosphodiester


In the double helix, bases interact with one another such that:

A with T and C with G


some regions of DNA are copied as a special class of RNA molecules called______________ ________

messenger RNA


mRNA is a template for the synthesis of __________

proteins


unlike DNA, mRNA is :

frequently broken down after use


RNA is similar to DNA in composition with two exceptions:

1. the base thymine (T) is replaced with uracil (U)
2. the sugar component of the ribonucleotides contain an additional hydroxyl (-OH) group


among the key biomolecules, ___________ are much smaller than proteins or nucleic acids

lipids


lipids are not polymers made of ____________ ___________, as are proteins and nucleic acids

repeating units


a key characteristic of many biochemically important lipids is their dual chemical nature: part of the molecule is _____________ and the other part of the molecule is ___________

hydophillic, hydrophobic


hydrophillic

it can dissolve in water


hydrophobic

cannot dissolve in water


the dual nature of lipids allows:

lipids to form barriers that delineate the cell from its environment and to establish intracellular componentsl allows an “inside” and “outside” at biochemical level


lipids are also an important ___________ form of energy

storage


the hydrophobic component of lipids can undergo _____________ to provide large amounts of cellular energy.

combustion


the most common carbohydrate fuel

glucose the simple sugar


glucose is stored in animals as:

glycogen


what does glycogen consist of:

many glucose molecules linked end to end and having occasional branches


in plants, the storage form of glucose is

starch,


central dogma

proposed by Francis Crick: information flows from DNA to RNA to protein


DNA constitutes the heritable information – the __________

genome


the information of the genome is packed in discrete units called

genes


the process of copying the genome is called

replication


DNA polymerase

a group of enzymes that catalyze the replication process


Translation takes place on large macromolecular complexes called ____________, consisting of RNA and protein

ribosomes


The _______ is the basic unit of life

cell


A ____________ is a lipid bilayer: two layers of lipids organized with their hydrophobic chains interacting with one another and the hydrophilic head groups interacting with the environment

membrane


There are two basic types of cells: ___________ cells and ____________ cells

eukaryotic, prokaryotic


The main difference between the two basic cell types is the existence of membrane-enclosed compartments in ______________ and the absence of such compartments in ________________.

eukaryotes, prokaryotes


—two biochemical features minimally constitute a cell: there must be :

(1) a barrier that separates the cell from its environment and
(2) an inside that is chemically differ- ent from the environment and that accommodates the biochemistry of living.


The _____________ ______________ separates the inside of the cell from the outside, one cell from another cell.

plasma membrane


the membrane must be rendered semipermeable but in a very selective way. This ______________ ______________is the work of proteins that are embedded in the plasma membrane or associated with it

selective permeability


The plasma membrane of a plant is itself surrounded by a ______ _______

cell wall


The cell wall is constructed largely from ___________, a long, linear polymer of glucose molecules

cellulose


The inner substance of the cell, the material that is surrounded by the plasma membrane, is called the ___________.

cytoplasm


The cytoplasm is the site of a host of biochemical processes, including the:

initial stage of glucose metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and protein synthesis.


the cytoskeleton is a network of three kinds of protein fibers—________ _____________, __________________ _____________, and ________________—that support the structure of the cell, help to localize certain biochemical activities, and even serve as “molecular highways” by which molecules can be shuttled around the cell

actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules


a key difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is the presence of a complex array of intracellular, membrane-bounded compartments called ____________ in eukaryotes

organelles


The largest organelle is the_____________, which is a double-membrane-bounded organelle

nucleus


The ___________ is the information center of the cell, the location of an organism’s genome.

nucleus


The nuclear membrane is punctuated with ________ that allow transport into and out of the nucleus.

pores