Cartilage bone & Embryonic Development – Biology

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Cartilage bone & Embryonic Development – Biology

This quiz is about cartilage bone and embryonic development – biology.


Endochondral ossification begins with a(n) _________ model.

mesenchyme
dense connective tissue
hyaline cartilage – correct
membranous
osteoid


When during human development does the process of ossification begin?

12 weeks after birth
12th-13th week of embryonic development – correct
8th-9th month of fetal development
3-4 months of age
10-25 years of age


The steps in the process of endochondral ossification are
a: Ossification center forms in the diaphysis.
b: Cartilage calcifies and a bone collar forms.
c: Ossification centers form in the epiphyses.
d: Bone replaces cartilage.
e: Epiphyseal plates ossify.
f: Cartilage model develops.
The correct chronological order for these steps is:

f. – b. – c. – d. – a. – e.
b. – c. – f. – a. – e. – d.
a. – c. – b. – d. – e. – f.
f. – b. – a. – c. – d. – e. – correct
a. – e. – c. – d. – b. – f.


During the process of endochondral ossification, chondrocytes in the cartilage model die. Why does this occur?

Blood supply to the cartilage is cut off by the developing periosteum.
Canaliculi connecting adjacent chondrocyte lacunae fuse.
Nutrients cannot diffuse to the chondrocytes through the calcified matrix. – correct
The developing bone collar secretes enzymes that destroy the chondrocytes.
Phagocytic osteoclasts in the new bone engulf and destroy the chondrocytes.


The zones found in an epiphyseal plate are
a: Calcified cartilage
b: Hypertrophic cartilage
c: Ossification
d: Resting cartilage
e: Proliferating cartilage
The correct order for these zones, beginning with the edge closest to the epiphysis and proceeding toward the diaphysis, is:

c – a – b – e – d
d – b – e – a – c
e – d – a – c – b
c – d – e – a – b
d – e – b – a – c – correct


Within which zone of the epiphyseal plate do cartilage cells undergo mitosis?

The zone closest to the medullary cavity
The zone closest to the epiphysis
The second closest bone to the medullary cavity
The second closest zone to the epiphysis – correct


Which is an accurate description of appositional bone growth?

Osteoblasts build bone at the circumferential lamellae while osteoclasts widen the medullary cavity. – correct
Osteoclasts build bone at the concentric lamellae while osteoblasts build bone at the interstitial lamellae.
Osteoblasts build bone at the concentric lamellae while osteoclasts build bone at the epiphyses.
Osteocytes build bone at the interstitial lamellae while osteoclasts expand the length of the medullary cavity.
Osteocytes and osteoclasts expand the bone at its epiphyses, chondrocytes construct cartilage.


Bone growth in which the bone increases in diameter is called:

interstitial growth.
epiphyseal growth.
appositional growth. – correct
endosteal growth.
cancellous bone growth.


Which is not true about bone remodeling?

Occurs throughout life.
Assists in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate levels in the body.
Occurs at both the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of the bone.
It occurs only at articular surfaces. – correct
It can occur in response to stress on a bone.


The type of bone tissue that is replaced more frequently is ________ bone; the part of the femur that is replaced more frequently is the __________.

compact, distal epiphysis
compact, diaphysis
spongy, distal epiphysis – correct
spongy, diaphysis


Mechanical stress of bones, such as that caused by weight lifting, is detected by:

osteocytes, which then communicate to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid. – correct
osteoclasts, which then communicate to osteocytes to increase the size of lacunae.
chondrocytes, which then trigger osteoblasts to increase bone in a lengthwise fashion.
osteoblasts, which then communicate to osteocytes and osteoclasts to deposit more hydroxyapatite.


The epiphyseal plates in the _________ are the last ones in the body to ossify.

femur
humerus
clavicle – correct
radius
tibia


Which hormone inhibits rather than stimulates bone growth?

Calcitonin
Estrogen and testosterone
Thyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone – correct
Growth hormone


Glucocorticoids increase bone ________; high levels of serotonin lead to _____ bone density.

formation, high
formation, low
loss, high
loss, low – correct


Which vitamin is required for the normal synthesis of collagen?

D Vitamin
Vitamin B
A Vitamin
Vitamin C – correct
K Vitamin


To trigger bone growth, growth hormone stimulates the:

liver to produce somatomedin. – correct
liver to produce calcitonin.
brain to produce serotonin.
parathyroid to produce parathyroid hormone.
thyroid to produce calcitriol.


What explains the dramatic acceleration in lengthwise bone growth at puberty?

Improved activity of osteoclasts occurs in response to parathyroid hormone stimulation.
Increased rate of calcium deposition occurs due to high blood calcium levels.
Improved physical activity causes lengthwise growth in response to bone stress.
Increased secretion of sex hormones promotes epiphyseal plate growth. – correct
Increased absorption of dietary vitamins and minerals strengthens the matrix.


Rickets, a disease characterized by overproduction and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue, is caused by a lack of sufficient:

Vitamin D. – correct
Calcitonin.
Thyroid hormone.
Thyroid & Vitamin A.
Vitamin C.


Calcidiol circulates in the blood and is converted to calcitriol in the:

kidney. – correct
skin.
liver.
bone.


In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone acts to ________ production of calcitriol and to ________ excretion of calcium in urine.

increase, increase
increase, decrease – correct
decrease, decrease
decrease, increase


Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol:

stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood. – correct
stimulate osteoblasts to deposit bone by producing calcified matrix.
increase osteoblasts to resorb bone and lower blood calcium levels.
improve osteoclasts to move calcium from the blood and into the bone.


Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by _______ levels of calcium in the blood.

high
low – correct


High blood calcium and exercise cause calcitonin release to:

increase. – correct
decrease.


Calcitonin _________ osteoclast activity and _______ excretion of calcium from the kidney.

stimulates, increases
stimulates, decreases
inhibits, increases – correct
inhibits, decreases


Which hormone normally has a more significant effect on blood calcium levels in adults?

Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone – correct


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

The bone is twisted as it fractures.
The fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
The bone is splintered into several fragments.
Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent. – correct
The fracture is at an oblique angle to the long axis of the bone.


A fracture parallel to the long axis of the bone is a(n) _________ fracture.

transverse
oblique
linear – correct
comminuted
medial


The break of a bone that has been weakened by disease is a ________fracture; when a broken end of the bone pierces the skin, the fracture is ________.

stress, greenstick.
epiphyseal, stress.
greenstick, simple.
pathologic, compound. – correct
pathologic, simple.


Which is not involved in the process of bone repair following a fracture?

Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to connect broken pieces of bone.
A fibrocartilaginous callus serves as a model for new bone growth.
Osteoclasts remove excess bone from the hard callus.
The fracture hematoma reorganizes to form a procallus.
No exceptions; all of the choices are involved in the process of bone repair. – correct


During bone repair, how long does the stage of the bony callus last?

12-24 hours
3-4 months – correct
1-2 years
8-10 days
1-2 weeks


The process of bone repair includes these steps:
a: Fracture hematoma forms
b: Bone is remodeled
c: Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
d: Bony callus forms
The correct chronological order for these steps is

a – c – d – b – correct
a – b – d – c
c – d – b – a
d – a – b – c
b – a – c – d


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women – correct
Men


Which is a change in bone architecture or mass related to aging?

Insufficient calcification
Demineralization
Reduction in the organic content of the matrix
Loss of flexibility and increase in brittleness
All of the choices are correct – correct


This figure shows the anatomy of compact bone. Which number indicates an osteon?

1
2 – correct
3
4
5


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. Which number is referring to a perforating (or Volkmann’s) canal?

1
2
3
4
5 – correct


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. What bone feature does number 4 indicate?

Osteocyte in lacuna – correct
Trabeculae
Osteon
Canaliculus
Perforating canal


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which number indicates an osteocyte?

1
2
3
4 – correct
5


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which type of cell secretes osteoid?

1
2 – correct
3
4
None of the choices is correct


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. What type of cell does number 3 indicate?

Osteocyte
Osteoblast
Osteoprogenitor cell
Bone-lining cell
Osteoclast – correct


This figure illustrates the components of compact bone. Which number indicates an osteon?

1
2 – correct
3
4
5


This figure illustrates the components of compact bone. Number 5 indicates passageways called

Central canals
Perforating canals – correct
Penetrating canals
Canaliculi
Interstitial canals


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. Which is the zone of proliferating cartilage?

1
2 – correct
3
4
5


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. Which zones are considered to be bone tissue?

3, 4, 5
4, 5
5 – correct
1
1, 2, 3


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. In which zone are minerals deposited in the matrix?

1
2
3
4 – correct
5


Which is not correct regarding articulations?

An articulation is a joint between a bone and another bone, cartilage, or tooth.
All articulations contain some type of cartilage. – correct
Arthrology is the scientific study of articulations.
Articulations can range in motion from freely mobile to immobile.
There are three structural categories of articulations.


The term “diarthrosis” refers to a joint that is

immobile.
freely mobile. – correct
fused.
slightly mobile.
dislocated.


In fibrous joints, the articulating surfaces are held together by
dense regular connective tissue.
areolar connective tissue.
dense irregular connective tissue. – correct
fibrocartilage.
articular cartilage.


The sagittal suture is a(n)
cartilaginous joint.
fibrous joint. – correct
synovial joint.
synchondrosis.
amphiarthrosis.


Sutures are joints that are found
throughout the axial and appendicular skeletons.
between all bones and teeth of the skull.
between certain bones of the skull. – correct
only where a facial bone articulates with a cranial bone.


An articular capsule is present in
fibrous joints.
fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints.
synovial joints. – correct
fibrous joints and synovial joints.
all joints.


Gomphoses

contain fluid-filled joint cavities.
are found only in tooth sockets. – correct
consist of sheets of hyaline cartilage.
cover the tendons in the shoulder and coxal joints.
are also called saddle joints.


Functionally, a gomphosis is categorized as a

cartilagenous joint.
diarthrosis.
synarthrosis. – correct
synovial joint.


The interosseous membrane between the radius and the ulna is an example of a

synchondrosis.
suture.
synostosis.
synarthrosis.
syndesmosis. – correct


Structurally, a syndesmosis is a _________ joint; functionally, it is a __________.

cartilagenous; diarthrosis
cartilagenous; amphiarthrosis
fibrous; amphiarthrosis – correct
fibrous; synarthrosis
ball and socket; pivot


A synarthrosis is

always made of cartilage.
a joint that has a capsule.
a joint within a fetus that ossifies during early development.
immobile. – correct
slightly mobile.


The pubic symphysis is classified as a

cartilaginous joint and an amphiarthrosis.
fibrous joint and a synarthrosis.
synovial joint and a diarthrosis.
cartilaginous joint and a synarthrosis. – correct
fibrous joint and an amphiarthrosis.


A synarthrotic joint would have

high mobility and high stability.
high mobility and low stability.
low mobility and low stability.
low mobility and high stability. – correct


Which is not a cartilaginous joint?

First costochondral joint
Intervertebral joint
Second costochondral joint
First sternocostal joint
Second sternocostal joint – correct


In a young person, the joint between the sphenoid bone and the occipital bone is a

suture.
synchondrosis. – correct
syndesmosis.
symphysis.
gomphosis.


What type of cartilage is located between the bones in a symphysis?

Elastic cartilage
Reticular cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage – correct
Sutural cartilage


Which is not true about synovial joints?

All articulating bone surfaces are covered with articular cartilage.
Synovial joints are enclosed by fibrous articular capsules.
Synovial fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane.
Ligaments strengthen and reinforce joints.
Blood circulates within the joint cavity to nourish the articular cartilage. – correct


Which is not a function of synovial fluid?

Nourishes osteocytes – correct
Lubricates articulating surfaces
Removes wastes
Serves as shock absorber
Distributes stress forces across articular surfaces


Which is not true regarding ligaments?

Intracapsular ligaments are within the articular capsule.
Ligaments are composed of dense regular connective tissue.
Extrinsic ligaments are physically separate from the articular capsule.
Intrinsic ligaments are thickenings of the articular cartilage. – correct
Extracapsular ligaments are outside the articular capsule.


Which are not considered to be features of a synovial joint?
Muscles – correct
Nerves
Blood vessels
Articular cartilage
Synovial fluid


Fluid-filled sacs that cushion synovial joints are called

fat pads.
articular discs.
bursae. – correct
menisci.
diarthroses.


Synovial fluid is

a watery fluid produced by hyaline cartilage.
an oily fluid produced by the synovial membrane. – correct
a watery fluid produced by capsular ligaments.
an oily fluid produced by articular cartilage.


Based on its range of motion, the elbow is classified as a(n) __________ joint.

multiaxial
gliding
uniaxial – correct
biaxial
ellipsoid


Which joint is multiaxial?

Pivot
Ball and socket – correct
Condylar
Plane
Hinge


Which of these synovial joints does not have at least one rounded or convex surface?

Saddle
Ball and socket
Pivot
Plane – correct
Condylar


The joint formed by the axis and atlas that permits the “no” shaking of the head is a _____ joint.

condylar
hinge
plane
pivot – correct
saddle


The metatarsophalangeal joints allow movement in two planes and are classified as _________ joints.

planar
ball and socket
condylar – correct
pivot
hinge


Which is not a correct pairing of a joint with its classification?

Tibiofemoral – hinge
Glenohumeral – ball and socket
Trapezium and first metacarpal – saddle
Intertarsal – condylar – correct
Proximal radioulnar – pivot


The ________ joint is the simplest synovial joint and also the least mobile synovial joint.

pivot
plane – correct
hinge
saddle
suture


The fixed point around which a lever rotates is the

fulcrum. – correct
condyle.
resistance node.
effort arm.
multiaxis.


In the body, a joint serves as a ________ for a long bone.

fulcrum – correct
lever
effort arm
resistor


When considering leverage, the part of the bone from the muscle attachment to the joint would be the

fulcrum.
effort arm. – correct
resistance arm.


If a heavy load is at one end of a lever, the distance between the fulcrum and that load is called the

effort arm.
resistance arm. – correct
lever length.


In a first-class lever

the fulcrum is in the middle, between the effort and the resistance. – correct
the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort.
the effort is between the resistance and the fulcrum.
there is no effort arm.


When considering joints in the human body, the most common lever type is the

first-class lever.
second-class lever.
third-class lever. – correct


Our calf muscles contract to cause plantar flexion, resembling the lever system of a wheelbarrow. Therefore, it is a _______ -class lever.

first
second – correct
third


In general, the movements demonstrated at plane joints between the carpals are

rotations.
gliding movements. – correct
flexions and extensions.
circumductions.
pivots.


A movement that increases or decreases the angle between two bones is a(n) __________ motion.

angular – correct
rotational
eversion
sliding


When the angle between articulating bones increases beyond the anatomic position, the movement is referred to as

dislocation.
supination.
hyperextension. – correct
hyperflexion.
hypertrophy.


Rotation of the forearm so as to direct the palm anteriorly (as in anatomic position) is called

abduction.
pronation.
eversion.
supination. – correct
protraction.


Movement of a body part toward the main axis of the body is called

abduction.
flexion.
inversion.
retraction.
adduction. – correct


The movement that occurs when the trunk of the body moves in a coronal plane laterally away from the body is

adduction.
hyperextension.
eversion
lateral flexion. – correct
gliding.


When the arm is raised anteriorly, the movement at the shoulder is

extension.
flexion. – correct
abduction.
adduction.
rotation.


If you move your head in such a way to look up at the ceiling, you are _________ your neck.

hyperextending – correct
rotating
circumducting
flexing
elevating


Clenching the fingers to make a fist, then relaxing and straightening them, is an example of __________ followed by __________.

flexion; extension – correct
extension; flexion
adduction; abduction
abduction; adduction
extension; hyperextension


The joint movement called eversion involves

lateral rotation of the coxal joint.
medial rotation of the coxal joint.
turning the sole of the foot laterally. – correct
turning the palm of the hand laterally.
turning the palm of the hand or sole of the foot laterally.


If you were to reach out your hand to receive a set of keys from someone, what movements of your forearm and hand would be involved?

Pronation and adduction
Supination and extension – correct
Depression and flexion
Protraction and rotation
Eversion and abduction


Which does not correctly pair a movement with its opposing movement?

Flexion – extension
Abduction – adduction
Pronation – supination
Elevation – retraction – correct
Dorsiflexion – plantar flexion


Which is not a correct pairing of a joint with its common name?

Radiocarpal joint – wrist
Glenohumeral joint – elbow – correct
Metacarpophalangeal – knuckle
Temporomandibular – TMJ
Talocrural – ankle


In the temporomandibular joint, a pad of fibrocartilage called the _________ divides the synovial cavity into two separate chambers.

meniscus
articular disc – correct
mandibular partition
sphenomandibular ligament
coronoid capsule


The articular capsule of the temporomandibular joint is exceptionally

loose. – correct
tight.


When protracting the jaw or making small side-to-side movements during chewing, the temporomandibular joint makes ________ movements.

rotation
gliding – correct
flexion
extension
circumduction


When elevating the mandible to chew food, the temporomandibular joint functions as a _________ joint.

pivot
ball and socket
hinge – correct
saddle


Which ligament is not associated with the glenohumeral joint?

Coracoacromial ligament
Coracohumeral ligament
Glenohumeral ligament
Humeral collateral ligament – correct


The acromioclavicular joint is part of the

sternum.
shoulder. – correct
elbow.
neck.
cranium.


The sternoclavicular joint is a saddle joint with a _______ range of movement.

wide – correct
narrow


The coracoclavicular ligament is a ______ ligament that connects the clavicle to part of the _______.

strong; scapula – correct
strong; sternum
weak; scapula
weak; sternum


The glenohumeral joint exhibits

a high degree of stability and a wide range of motion.
a high degree of stability but a narrow range of motion.
a low level of stability but a wide range of motion. – correct
a low level of stability and a narrow range of motion.


One of the weakest parts of the shoulder is the part that lacks tendons of the rotator cuff. This weak area is the ______ aspect of the shoulder.

inferior – correct
superior
anterior
posterior


The glenohumeral ligaments are

strong and distinct.
weak and indistinct. – correct


Which joints are responsible for flexion and extension at the elbow?

Glenohumeral and humeroulnar
Humeroulnar and humeroradial – correct
Humeroulnar, humeroradial, and radioulnar
Humeroradial, radioulnar, and radiocarpal
Humeroradial and radioulnar


The elbow is a _______ joint.

plane
hinge – correct
condyle
saddle


Which ligament is responsible for holding the head of the radius in place?

Anular ligament – correct
Ulnar collateral ligament
Radial collateral ligament
Transverse humeral ligament
Deltoid ligament


The main ligament supporting the lateral aspect of the elbow is the

radial collateral ligament. – correct
lateral cruciate ligament.
annular ligament.
ulnar collateral ligament.
ulnar condylar ligament.


The elbow contains _____ articular capsule(s).

one – correct
two
three


The fibrocartilage rim that deepens the hip socket is the

coxal retinaculum.
obturator membrane.
acetabular labrum. – correct
glenoid labrum.


Strong reinforcement for the anterior aspect of the hip joint is provided by the Y-shaped

iliofemoral ligament. – correct
pubofemoral ligament.
ligament of the head of the femur.
ischiofemoral ligament.


The ligamentum teres of the hip extends from the

ilium to the lesser trochanter of the femur.
acetabulum to the head of the femur. – correct
pubis to the greater trocanter of the femur.
iliac crest to the head of the femur.
ischium to the intertrochanteric crest of the femur.


When compared to the shoulder, the hip joint has

a deeper bony socket and stronger supporting ligaments. – correct
a deeper bony socket but weaker supporting ligaments.
a shallower bony socket and weaker supporting ligaments.
a shallower bony socket but stronger supporting ligaments.


In addition to its hinge function, when the knee is _______ it allows for some slight ________.

flexed; circumduction
flexed; rotation – correct
extended; supination
extended; gliding


Which knee ligament is most crucial for preventing hyperadduction?

Tibial collateral ligament
Fibular collateral ligament – correct
Patellar ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
Medial meniscus


In addition to the joint between the tibia and the femur, the knee contains a joint between the

fibula and the femur.
patella and the fibula.
patella and the femur. – correct
patella and the tibia.


The patellar ligament attaches the patella to the

femur.
quadriceps muscle.
fibula.
tibia. – correct
hamstring muscles.


Which of the following describes a meniscus?

Attach one bone to another at a joint
Fibrous cartilage pads – correct
Flat, fluid-filled sacs
Found only at the temporomandibular joint
Attach muscles to bones


What is the function of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint?

Hold the patella in place on the femur
Hold the patella in place on the tibia
Limit the movement of the femur on the tibia – correct
Decrease the movement of the fibula on the femur
Limit the movement of the fibula on the tibia


The deltoid ligament, lateral ligament, and tibiofibular ligaments belong to the ________ joint.

tarsometatarsal
talocrural – correct
humeroradial
knee
fibulometatarsal


In the human body, joints start to form by the _________ week of embryonic development.

4th
8th
6th – correct
10th
12th


During development of synovial joints, the articular capsule forms from mesenchymal tissue that is

laterally located. – correct
centrally located.


Common, wear-and-tear arthritis, in which repeated use of a joint gradually wears down the articular cartilage, is known as

gout.
osteoarthritis. – correct
rheumatoid arthritis.
osteopenia.
articular porosis.


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