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Amino Acid – Biochemistry Exam

The key terms of Biochemistry Exam, Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, Protein, Glucose, Human, Body.


Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of

Glucose and fructose


Glucose, lactose and galactose are all _____ each other, in that they all have the molecular formula C6H12O6

isomers of


Glucose is used for


a. Structure
b. Energy storage
c. Quick energy
d. All of the above – correct


Which carbohydrate is not digestible and provides fiber or “roughage” in humans?

cellulose


Which carbohydrate does not come from plant sources

Lactose


Which of these food groups is not considered a good source of protein? 
a. meat
b. beans.
c. milk
d. fruit – correct


What determines the three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule?

The order and chemical properties of the amino acids


The necessary coenzyme for the transamination reaction is

Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)


Which of the following statements about protein synthesis is false? 


a. limiting amino acids can halt protein synthesis
b. nonessential amino acids can be made through transamination 
c. amino acids needed for protein synthesis come from the amino acid pool
d. Essential amino acids can be made through transamination – correct


In transamination an amine group is transferred to ________ to form a nonessential amino acid.

Alpha keto acid


The NH3 produced in muscle degradation of amino acids and other nitrogenated compounds is transported through blood to the liver using ______ as a carrier

alanine


The 3 carbon alpha ketoacid formed from the oxidative deamination of alanine is

Pyruvate


In oxidative deamination, an amine group is removed from an amino acid (usually glutamic acid) leaving ammonia and keto acid. In this process _________ is formed which can enter the electron transport chain.

NADH


Which of the following processes is involved in using proteins as a source of energy?

Keogenesis


What biomolecule is formed at very high levels in the blood of PKU patients?

phenylalanine


T/F Protein complementation combines foods containing proteins with different limiting amino acids in order to improve the protein quality of the diet.

True


T/F Proteins help keep fluids an pH balanced in the body

True


T/F Methionine is the only amino acid that contains sulfur.

False- cysteine also does


T/f Alanine exists as a zwitterion at a pH7

True


T/F Amino acid catabolism is increased during starvation

True


T/F The Urea cycle is regulated by an enzyme called CPS-1

True


T/F All amino acids are essential amino acids

False


T/F The major excretory product of amino acid catabolism is ammonia

False


T/F Protein synthesis is decreased during periods of growth.

False- increased during periods of growth


Ammonia is detoxified to urea via the urea cycle in the liver

True


Explain the major role of glutamate and alpha ketoglutarate in amino acid biosynthesis and degradation

They lose or gain an amine group to generate energy and create NH4 or NADH


An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid is called

edema


What do we call the amino acids that human beings can synthesize?

nonessential


How do humans obtain the amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body?

we eat them


Name two classes of protein in the body

structural enzymes


How many common amino acids are there?

20


Which amino acid is not chiral?

Glycine


Name the two classification of secondary structures found in proteins

alpha helix
beta sheet


The most common monomer of carbohydrate is

Glucose


Monosaccharides are

Aldoses and ketoses


A disaccharide is _____ monosaccharides joined together covalently by a________

2; Glycosidic bond


Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of

Glucose and fructose


Glucose, lactose and galactose are all _____ each other, in that they all have the molecular formula C6H12O6

isomers of


Glucose is used for


a. Structure
b. Energy storage
c. Quick energy
d. All of the above – correct


Which carbohydrate is not digestible and provides fiber or “roughage” in humans?

cellulose


Which carbohydrate does not come from plant sources

Lactose