Protein & Chemical Reaction In Organism – Biology
This biology chapter covers protein and chemical reaction in organism.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism’s life functions.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Organisms that eat only plants.
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.
Organisms that produce their own food.
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Reproduction that requires two organisms
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.
The idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions.
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
The science of classifying organisms.
Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
An organism that causes disease.
An organism that feeds of dead matter.
An organism that feeds on a living host.
An organism that requires oxygen.
An organism that does not require oxygen.
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell’s main DNA.
A membrane-bounded “sac” within a cell.
The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells.
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.
Tiny organisms that float in the water.
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself.
A colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object.
Digestion that takes place outside of the cell.
The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food.
A filament of fungal cells.
A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows.
A hypha that is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows.
Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores.
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.
A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host’s cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
A thin covering of tissue.
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
The basic building blocks of matter.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.
One of the three forms–solid, liquid, or gas–which every substance is capable of attaining.
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula.
Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms.
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
Lacking any affinity to water.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules.
The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
The breakdown of absorbed substances.
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy.
The removal of soluble waste materials.
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.
The release of biosynthesized substances.
Maintaining the status quo.
Producing more cells.
The study of cells.
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell’s surroundings.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell’s contents.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
ER that has no ribosomes.
Organelles that store starches or oils.
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis.
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
Vacuoles that contain the wast products of digestion.
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs.
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that the can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Fine, threadlike proteins found in a cell’s cytoskeleton.
Threadlike proteins in the cell’s cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Collapse of a walled cell’s cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
The general guideline of traits determined by a person’s DNA.
Those “nonbiological” factors that are involved in a person’s surroundings such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices.
The factors in a person’s life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein of a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait.
The RNA that performs transcription.
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA.
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells.
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
The region that joins two sister chromatids.
The figure produced when the chomosomes of species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body’s production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
double the chromosomes
neuclic acid base pairs
receives instructions from DNA
process of forming a neucleic acid using a template
uses the codons in mRNA to make a specific amino acid
monomers of amino acid chains
body cell reproduction and sex cell reproduction
2 parents male and female
segment of dna that codes for a specific trait
made up of DNA and proteins