Protein & Chemical Reaction In Organism – Biology

Protein & Chemical Reaction In Organism – Biology

This biology chapter covers protein and chemical reaction in organism.


Metabolism

The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism’s life functions.


Anabolism

The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.


Catabolism

The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.


Photosynthesis

The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.


Herbivores

Organisms that eat only plants.


Carnivores

Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.


Omnivores

Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.


Producers

Organisms that produce their own food.


Consumers

Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.


Decomposers

Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.


Autotrophs

Organisms that are able to make their own food.


Heterotrophs

Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.


Receptors

Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.


Asexual reproduction

Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.


Sexual reproduction

Reproduction that requires two organisms


Inheritance

The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.


Mutation

An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents


Hypothesis

An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.


Theory

A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.


Scientific law

A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.


Microorganisms

Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.


Abiogenesis

The idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions.


Prokaryotic cell

A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.


Eukaryotic cell

A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.


Species

A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.


Taxonomy

The science of classifying organisms.


Binomial nomenclature

Naming an organism with its genus and species name.


Pathogen

An organism that causes disease.


Saprophyte

An organism that feeds of dead matter.


Parasite

An organism that feeds on a living host.


Aerobic organism

An organism that requires oxygen.


Anaerobic organism

An organism that does not require oxygen.


Steady state

A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.


Exponential growth

Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.


Logistic growth

Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.


Conjugation

A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.


Plasmid

A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.


Transformation

The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.


Transduction

The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.


Endospore

The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.


Strains

Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.


Pseudopod

A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.


Nucleus

The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell’s main DNA.


Vacuole

A membrane-bounded “sac” within a cell.


Ectoplasm

The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells.


Endoplasm

The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.


Flagellate

A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.


Pellicle

A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.


Chloroplast

An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.


Chlorophyll

A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.


Eyespot

A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa


Symbiosis

A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.


Mutualism

A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.


Commonesalism

A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.


Parasitism

A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.


Cilia

Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.


Spore

A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.


Plankton

Tiny organisms that float in the water.


Zooplankton

Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.


Phytoplankton

Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.


Thallus

The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.


Cellulose

A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.


Holdfast

A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself.


Sessile colony

A colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object.


Extracellular digestion

Digestion that takes place outside of the cell.


Mycelium

The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food.


Hypha

A filament of fungal cells.


Rhizoid hypha

A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows.


Aerial hypha

A hypha that is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows.


Sporophore

Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores.


Stolon

An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.


Haustorium

A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host’s cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.


Chitin

A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.


Membrane

A thin covering of tissue.


Fermentation

The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.


Zygospore

A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.


Zygote

The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.


Antibiotic

A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.


Atoms

The basic building blocks of matter.


Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space.


Model

An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.


Element

A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.


Molecules

Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.


Physical change

A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.


Chemical change

A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.


Phase

One of the three forms–solid, liquid, or gas–which every substance is capable of attaining.


Diffusion

The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


Concentration

A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.


Semipermeable membrane

A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.


Osmosis

The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.


Catalyst

A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.


Organic Molecule

A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.


Biosynthesis

The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.


Isomers

Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula.


Monosaccharides

Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms.


Disaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.


Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.


Dehydration reaction

A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.


Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.


Hydrophobic

Lacking any affinity to water.


Saturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.


Unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.


Peptide bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.


Hydrogen bond

A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules.


Absorption

The transport of dissolved substances into cells.


Digestion

The breakdown of absorbed substances.


REspiration

The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy.


Excretion

The removal of soluble waste materials.


Egestion

The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.


Secretion

The release of biosynthesized substances.


Homeostasis

Maintaining the status quo.


Reproduction

Producing more cells.


Cytology

The study of cells.


Middle lamella

The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.


Cell Wall

A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.


Plasma membrane

The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell’s surroundings.


Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.


Ions

Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.


Cytoplasmic streaming

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell’s contents.


Mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.


Lysosome

The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.


Ribosomes

Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.


Endoplasmic reticulum

An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.


Rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes.


Smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes.


Leucoplasts

Organelles that store starches or oils.


Chromoplasts

Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis.


Central vacuole

A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.


Waste vacuoles

Vacuoles that contain the wast products of digestion.


Phagocytosis

The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.


Phagocytic vacuole

A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs.


Pinocytic vesicle

Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.


Secretion vesicle

Vesicle that holds secretion products so that the can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.


Golgi bodies

The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.


Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.


Nuclear membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.


Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.


Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.


Microfilaments

Fine, threadlike proteins found in a cell’s cytoskeleton.


Intermediate filaments

Threadlike proteins in the cell’s cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.


Phospholipid

A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.


Passive transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.


Active transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.


Isotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.


Hypertonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.


Plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell’s cytoplasm due to a lack of water.


Cytolysis

The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure.


Hypotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.


Activation energy

Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.


Genetics

The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.


Genetic factors

The general guideline of traits determined by a person’s DNA.


Environmental factors

Those “nonbiological” factors that are involved in a person’s surroundings such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices.


Spiritual factors

The factors in a person’s life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.


Gene

A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein of a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait.


Messenger RNA

The RNA that performs transcription.


Anticodon

A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA.


Codon

A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.


Chromosome

DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.


Mitosis

A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells.


Interphase

The time interval between cellular reproduction.


Mother cell

A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.


Centromere

The region that joins two sister chromatids.


Karyotype

The figure produced when the chomosomes of species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.


Diploid cell

A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.


Haploid cell

A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.


Diploid number (2n)

The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.


Haploid number (n)

the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.


Meiosis

The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).


Gametes

Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.


Virus

A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.


Antibodies

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.


Vaccine

A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body’s production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.


DNA

Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus


replication

double the chromosomes


nucleotides

neuclic acid base pairs


RNA

receives instructions from DNA


Transcription

process of forming a neucleic acid using a template


Translation

uses the codons in mRNA to make a specific amino acid


proteins

monomers of amino acid chains


mitosis, meiosis

body cell reproduction and sex cell reproduction


sexual reproduction

2 parents male and female


asexual reproduction

1 parent


genes

segment of dna that codes for a specific trait


Chromosomes

made up of DNA and proteins


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