DNA Chromosomes & Genes Psychology

Quiz 2 DNA Chromosomes & Genes Psychology

This quiz is about DNA Chromosomes & Genes Psychology.


Chromosomes

One of 46 rod-like molecules that contain 23 pairs of DNA found in every body cell and collectively contain all of the genes.


Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

The chemical structure, shaped like a twisted ladder, that contains all of the genes.


Genes

The basic unit of heredity; a small section of a chromosome that contains the string of chemicals (DNA) that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture proteins.


Mitosis

The process of cell duplication in which DNA is replicated and the resulting cell is genetically identical to the original.


Meiosis

The process by which a gamete is formed, containing one half of the cell’s chromosomes, producing ova and sperm with 23 single, unpaired chromosomes.


Gamete

A reproductive cell; sperm in males and ovum in females.


Zygote

A fertilized ovum


Ovum

The female reproductive cell or egg cell


Dizygotic (DZ) Twins

Also known as a fraternal twin; occurs when two ova are released and each is fertilized by a different sperm; the resulting offspring share 50% of the genetic material.


Monozygotic (MZ) Twins

Also known as an identical twin; occurs when the zygote splits apart early in development. The resulting offspring share 100% of their genetic material.


Alleles

A variation of a gene that influences an individual’s characteristics


Homozygous

Refers to a chromosomal pair consisting of two identical alleles.


Heterozygous

Refers to a chromosomal pair consisting of two different alleles.


Dominant-recessive Inheritance

A form of genetic inheritance in which the phenotype reflects only the dominant allele of a heterozygous pair.


Carrier

An individual who is heterozygous for a particular trait, in which a recessive gene is not expressed in the phenotype yet may be passed on to the carrier’s offspring.


Incomplete Dominance

A genetic inheritance pattern in which both genes are expressed in the phenotype.


Sickle Cell Trait

A recessive trait, most often affecting African Americans, that causes red blood cells to become crescent or sickle shaped, resulting in difficulty distributing oxygen throughout the circulatory system.


Polygenic Inheritance

Occurs when a trait is a function of the interaction of many genes, such as with height, intelligence, and temperament.


Genomic Imprinting

The instance when the expression of a gene is determined by whether it is inherited from the mother or father.


Phenylketonuria (PKU)

A recessive disorder that prevents the body from producing an enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine (an amino acid) from proteins that, without treatment, leads to buildup that damages the central nervous system.


Fragile X Syndrome

An example of a dominant–recessive disorder carried on the X chromosome characterized by intellectual disability, cardiac defects, and behavioral mannerisms common in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders; occurs in both males and females but is more severe in males.


Hemophilia

An X-linked chromosomal disorder involving abnormal blood clotting.


Down Syndrome

Also known as trisomy 21; a condition in which a third, extra chromosome appears at the 21st site. Down syndrome is associated with distinctive physical characteristics accompanied by developmental disability.


Klinefelter Syndrome

Sex chromosome abnormality in which a male has an extra X chromosome (XXY).


Jacob’s Syndrome

A sex chromosome abnormality experienced by men in which they produce high levels of testosterone; also known as XYY syndrome.


Turner Syndrome

Sex chromosome abnormality in which a female is born with only one X chromosome; girls with Turner syndrome show abnormal growth patterns, abnormalities in primary and secondary sex characteristics, and other disorders.


Mutations

A sudden permanent change in the structure of genes.


Genetic Counseling

A medical specialty that helps prospective parents determine the probability that their children will inherit genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities.


Artificial Insemination

A means of conception in which sperm are injected into the vagina by a means other than sexual intercourse.


In Vitro Fertilization

Fertilization, the creation of zygotes, that takes place outside of a woman’s body by mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman’s body.


Surrogacy

An alternative form of reproduction known in which a woman (the surrogate) is impregnated and carries a fetus to term and agrees to turn the baby over to a woman, man, or couple who will raise it.


Adoption

A legal process in which a person assumes the parenting rights and responsibilities of a child.


Ultrasound

Prenatal diagnostic procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are directed at the mother’s abdomen to provide clear images of the womb projected onto a video monitor.


Fetal MRI

Applies MRI technology to image the fetus’s body and diagnose malformations.


Amniocentesis

A prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a small sample of the amniotic fluid is extracted from the mother’s uterus and subject to genetic analysis.


Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

Prenatal diagnostic test that is conducted on cells sampled from the chorion to detects chromosomal abnormalities.


Noninvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)

A prenatal diagnostic that samples cell- free fetal DNA from the mother’s blood for chromosomal abnormalities.


Fetoscopy

A technique that uses a small camera, inserted through a small incision on the mother’s abdomen or cervix and placed into the amniotic sac to examine and perform procedures on the fetus during pregnancy.


Genotype

An individual’s collection of genes that contain instructions for all physical and psychological characteristics, including hair, eye color, personality, health, and behavior.


Phenotype

The observable physical or behavioral characteristics of a person’s eye color, hair color, or height.


Behavioral Genetics

The field of study that examines how genes and environment combine to influence the diversity of human traits, abilities, and behaviors.


Heritability

The statistic that indicates the extent to which variation of a certain trait can be traced to genes.


Gene–environment Interactions

Refer to the dynamic interplay between our genes and our environment in determining out characteristics, behavior, physical, cognitive, and social development as well as health.


Range of Reaction

The concept that a genetic trait may be expressed in a wide range of phenotypes dependent on environmental opportunities and constraints.


Canalization

The tendency for a trait that is biologically programmed to be restricted to only a few outcomes.


Gene–environment Correlation

verses


Niche-Picking

An active gene–environment correlation in which individuals seek out experiences and environments that complement their genetic tendencies.


Epigenetics

A perspective that development results from dynamic interactions between genetics and the environment such that the expression of genetic inheritance is influenced by environmental forces.


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