### Anonymous survey, Research Study, Parameter, Sample, Population, Mean – Statistic

The key terms in these Statistic chapters include Parameter, Anonymous Survey, Research Study, Sample, Social Skills Training, Survey, Dependent Variable, Population, Mean, High School Students, Ordinal Scale, Independent Variable, Correlational Study, Distribution, Variable, Scale of Measurement, Ordinal.

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

**Sample**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

**Sample**

A sample consists of n = 16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the range?

**2**

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

**12**

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

**The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The entire group of American adolescents is an example of a _________.

**Population**

A researcher is curious about the average monthly cell phone bill for high school students in the state of Florida. If this average could be obtained, it would be an example of a ______.

**Parameter**

Although a research study is typically conducted with a relatively small group of participants known as a _________, most researchers hope to generalize their results to a much larger group known as a _________.

**Sample; population**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**A sample and a population**

Organizing a set of scores in a table is an example of using _______.

**Descriptive statistics**

A characteristic, usually a numerical value, which describes a sample is called a _______.

**Statistic**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.

**Statistic**

The average verbal SAT score for the entire class of entering freshmen is 530. However, if you select a sample of 20 freshmen and compute their average verbal SAT score you probably will not get exactly 530. What statistical concept is used to explain the natural difference that exists between a sample mean and the corresponding population mean?

**Sampling error**

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**The amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

A recent study reports that students who just finished playing a prosocial video game were more likely to help others than students who had played a neutral or antisocial game. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**The kind of game given to the students**

In a correlational study,

**2 variables are measured and there is only 1 group of participants.**

In an experimental study,

**1 variable is measured and 2 groups are compared.**

Which of the following symbols identifies the population of scores? Scores 5, 2, 5, 4

**o**

What is the VARIANCE for the following population of scores? Scores: 5, 2, 5, 4

**1.5**

My electric bills for June, July and August last summer were $75, $75, and $150, respectively. What was the mean amount for the three bills?

**$100**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

**A quasi-independent variable**

For an experiment comparing two methods of teaching social skills training to autistic children, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.

**Teaching methods; the social skills that are learned**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

**The gender of each student in a psychology class**

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?

**The amount of time to solve a problem**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a _____ variable

**Discrete**

What kind of variable requires the use of real limits?

**Continuous**

A doctor is measuring children’s heights to the nearest ½ inch and obtains scores such as 40.0, 40.5, 41.0, and so on. What are the real limits for a score of X = 42?

**41.75 and 42.25**

The participants in a research study are classified as high, medium, or low in self-esteem. What measurement scale is being used to classify self-esteem?

**Ordinal**

Students in an introductory art class are classified as art majors and non-art majors. What scale of measurement is being used to classify the students?

**Nominal**

Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

Determining the class standing (1st, 2nd, and so on) for the graduating seniors at a high school would involve measurement on a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an ordinal scale compared to a nominal scale?

**The direction of the difference**

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an interval scale compared to a ordinal scale?

**The size of the difference**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

**12**

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

**The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The entire group of American adolescents is an example of a _________.

**Population**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**A sample and a population**

Organizing a set of scores in a table is an example of using _______.

**Descriptive statistics**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.

**Statistic**

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**The amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

**Parameter**

A recent study reports that students who just finished playing a prosocial video game were more likely to help others than students who had played a neutral or antisocial game. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**The kind of game given to the students**

In a correlational study,

**2 variables are measured and there is only 1 group of participants.**