Sense And Behavior Psychology Study

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Sense And Behavior Psychology Study

In this chapter we discuss Sense And Behavior Psychology Study


The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.


All outward or overt actions and reactions.

Mental Processes

Internal, covert activity of the mind.

Description [what is happening?], Understanding [why is it happening?], Prediction [when will it happen again?], Control [how can it be changed?]

Willhelm Wundt

The “father of psychology”, a physiologist, who attempted to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind.

Objective introspection

the process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities

Edward Titchener

A student of Wundt and created structuralism.


Focus of the study is the structure or basic elements of the mind.

William James

Discovered functionalism.


The focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work and play. Influenced the modern fields of educational, evolutionary and industrial/organizational psychology.

Gestalt Psychology

Started with Wirtheimer, the “good figure” psychology. Now part of cognitive psychology and not only focuses on perception but learning, memory, thought processes and problem solving.


Theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud. Believed that nervous disorders were caused by suppressed urges and that early childhood experiences were significant.

John B. Watson

Proposed behaviorism, “the science of behavior” that focuses on observable behavior.

Humanistic perspective

People have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny.


a measure of the relationship between two variables

Independent variable

Variable in the experiment that is manipulated.

Dependent variable

Variable in an experiment that represents measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.

Experimenter effect

tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study.

Single-blind study

study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

Double-blind study

study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group


mood learning, memory, muscle contraction, Alzheimers disease [when there is not enough]


attention, learning, movement, cocaine, schizophrenia


eating, alertness, wakefulness, depression [too little]


mood, sleep, appetite, aggression, depression [too little]


pain relief, pleasure


part of the forebrain that relays information from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex


plays a role in learning, memory and ability to compare sensory info to expectations

Frontal lobe

emotions; personality, decisions, memory, planning, inhibition

Occipital lobe

process visual info; identifies and makes sense of usual information

Parietal lobe

contains the somatosensory cortex, controls sense of touch, receive info from skin cells


motivation, emotion control, fear response, interpretation [nonverbal emotion of expressions[


fever, flight, fear, sexual drive [four F’s]


surgery in the temporal lobe in the hippocampus due to having frequent seizures. Now can’t transfer short term to long term.

Nuclear structure

Unique because it makes up the nervous system. Receives and send information.


soma has the dendrites around it which receives information and send it to the synaptic knobs and turns it into a chemical message


dark light. back of retina.


color. back of retina.

Blind spot

in the back of the eye that receives no information

Dark adaptation

recovery of the eyes sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights

Light adaptation

to recovery of the eyes sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness

Auditory canal

short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum


thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear


snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid

Organ of corti

rests in the basilar membrane; contains receptor cells for sense of hearing

Auditory nerve

bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear; receives neural message from the organ of Corti

Taste buds

taste receptor cells in mouth; responsible for sense of taste

Five basic tastes

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, brothy

Olfactory bulbs

areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive info from olfactory receptor cells [atleast 1,000 olfactory receptors]

Somesthetic senses

the body senses consisting of the skins senses, the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular senses

Gate-control theory

pain signals must pass through a “gate” located in the spinal cord

Kinesthetic sense

sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other

Vestibular senses

sensations of movement, balance and body position