Fallacy Determinism & Validity – Philosophy

Fallacy Determinism & Validity – Philosophy

These Philosophy chapters discuss fallacy involved, determinism & validity.


Neuromedia is

Media stories about the future possibility of neuroscience

Miniaturized smart phones hooked directly into a person’s brain – Correct

Another name for social media

The materials that make up the brain


According to Lynch, we can draw three lessons from Plato’s Dialogue “The Meno” about knowledge. Mark all three below.

There is only one way to have knowledge.

Knowing something is different from just having an opinion about it – Correct

A good definition of knowledge is true opinion

Having accurate information still isn’t enough to know either – Correct

What grounds our opinions or beliefs matters for action – Correct


According to Lynch, which of the following ways of knowing is most important

The sort of knowing that is based on reasons and experience

The sort of knowing we gain by absorbing information from expert textbooks or good Internet resources – Correct

The sort of knowing that comes from the gut.

The sort of knowing we expect from our most creative experts, having a grasp of the big picture.


True or false?

Lynch argues that neuromedia leads to the same worries about knowledge as Descartes Evil Demon thought experiment.

True – Correct

False


Lynch believes that our digital form of life is good at giving us more understanding.

True

False – Correct


Empirical evidence is used in which form of reasoning?

A priori reasoning

Naturalistic reasoning

A posteriori reasoning – Correct

Scientific reasoning


Descartes focused on using which of the following methods?

A posteriori

A priori – Correct

Naturalistic

Scientific


Indirect realism claims that

we do not see objects themselves, but the ideal forms of the objects.

we see objects themselves, though indirectly through the senses – Correct

we do not see objects themselves, but the mental images they produce.

we see objects themselves, though indirectly through the imaginative faculty.


How do Lockean primary qualities differ from secondary qualities?

Ideas of secondary qualities resemble the qualities themselves, whereas ideas of primary qualities do not resemble the qualities themselves.

Ideas of primary qualities resemble the qualities themselves, whereas ideas of secondary qualities do not resemble the qualities themselves – Correct

Primary qualities are derived from secondary qualities.

Secondary qualities are derived from primary qualities.


Naïve representationalism claims that

all theories that assume a similarity between material objects and the ideas that represent them are naïve.

setting aside occasional cases of illusion, the ideas generated in perception closely resemble the material objects they represent – Correct

the ideas generated in perception perfectly resemble the material objects they represent.

setting aside occasional cases of illusion, the ideas generated in perception perfectly resemble the material objects they represent.


To say that a calculator is “deterministic” means that

given the same input, the calculator will perform the same calculations, in the same order, and then produce the same output, except insofar as chance interferes.

given any input at all input, the calculator will perform the same calculations, in the same order, and then produce the same output, except insofar as chance interferes.

given the same input, the calculator will perform the same calculations, in the same order, and then produce the same output, leaving nothing to chance – Correct

given any input at all input, the calculator will perform the same calculations, in the same order, and then produce the same output, leaving nothing to chance.


According to determinists, the laws of physics are deterministic and govern

everything except the actions of living creatures.

everything – Correct

everything except the actions of human beings.

everything beyond the subatomic level.


__________ imagined a supernatural “demon,” with unlimited memory, an unlimited ability to calculate, and a complete knowledge of the laws of physics, who, given a complete description of the world at some particular time, could figure out the whole subsequent course of history—including all human actions.

Descartes

Plato

Pierre-Simon Laplace – Correct

Newton


__________ defended hard determinism by stating: “Man is a purely physical being. . . . [He is] subject to . . . immutable laws. . . . Man’s life is a line that Nature commands him to describe upon the surface of the earth: without his ever being able to swerve from it even for an instant. He is born without his own consent [and] he is unceasingly modified by causes, whether visible or concealed, over which he has no control. . . . Nevertheless, despite of the shackles by which he is bound, it is pretended he is a free agent, or that independent of the causes by which he is moved, he determines his own will; regulates his own condition.”

Baron d’Holbach – Correct

Immanuel Kant

David Hume

William James


The belief in free will is rejected by

quantum theorists.

soft determinists.

hard determinists – Correct

libertarians.


Philosophers who suggested that we have free will even though determinism is true are known as

libertarians.

soft determinists – Correct

quantum theorists.

hard determinists.


__________ defended soft determinism by stating: “By ‘liberty,’ then, we can only mean a power of acting or not acting according to the determinations of the will; i.e. if we choose to stay still we may do so, and if we choose to move we may do that.”

Baron d’Holbach

David Hume – Correct

William James

Immanuel Kant


Which condition(s) notobtaining led Hume to believe that the movements of an epileptic person having a seizure aren’t free?

There are no obstacles in the person’s way, which prevent him from acting as he chooses.

The person is acting in pursuit of what he desires, and his actions are a result of his own decisions. – Correct

None of these conditions

The person is acting in pursuit of what he desires, and his actions are a result of his own decisions AND There are no obstacles in the person’s way, which prevent him from acting as he chooses.


Philosophers who think that determinism is false and that (in part for this reason) we are capable of free action are known as

libertarians – Correct

soft determinists.

quantum theorists.

hard determinists.


__________ claimed that we each have a nonphysical, “transcendental” self, that is outside space and time, is ungoverned by the laws of physics, and makes free decisions for which we are morally responsible.

Immanuel Kant – Correct

William James

Baron d’Holbach

David Hume


Determine validity.

If it is a bathroom, then there is a toilet in it. There is a toilet in it. Therefore, it is a bathroom.

Valid

Not Valid – Correct


Determine validity.

Angelo is a cheap restaurant. We should eat at a cheap restaurant. So we should eat at Angelo.

Valid

Not valid – Correct


Determine Validity.

If Sarah was born in Massachusetts, then she is a native of New England. Sarah is not a native of New England. Therefore, Sarah was not born in Massachusetts.

Valid – Correct

Not valid


Determine Validity..

If Sunarish lives in Bali, then Sunarish lives in Indonesia. Sunarish lives in Indonesia. So, Sunarish lives in Bali.

Not Valid – Correct

Valid


Determine Validity.

If Maria turns in her assignment on time, she will get credit for it. Maria did not turn her assignment in on time. So, Maria will not get credit for it.  

Valid

Not Valid – Correct


Identify any fallacy in each of these passages. If no fallacy is committed, select “no fallacy involved”.

There are two types of people in the world. Either they are your friends or they are your enemies.

equivocation

false dilemma – Correct

composition

no fallacy involved

post hoc, ergo propter hoc

appeal to pity


Identify any fallacy in each of these passages. If no fallacy is committed, select “no fallacy involved”.

The Loch Ness monster obviously exists. Scientists have not been able to show that it does not exist.

appeal to ignorance – Correct

red herring

no fallacy involved

straw man

division

appeal to popularity


Identify any fallacy in each of these passages. If no fallacy is committed, select “no fallacy involved”.

This orchestra has to be good because all its musicians are good.

no fallacy involved

equivocation

ad hominem

genetic fallacy

composition – Correct

division


Identify any fallacy in each of these passages. If no fallacy is committed, select “no fallacy involved”.

I received the Amulet at 2:00 p.m. on Friday. I went to Bingo at 6:00 p.m. and won $50.00. The next day I won $300.00! I’m very happy because I was about to give up Bingo, but now I have the Amulet.

straw man

post hoc, ergo propter hoc – Correct

no fallacy involved

red herring

suppressed evidence

genetic fallacy


Identify any fallacy in each of these passages. If no fallacy is committed, select “no fallacy involved”.

Professor Jones’ lecture on the Constitution is a bunch of nonsense. Did you know she associates with political extremists?

appeal to authority

appeal to popularity

ad hominem – Correct

post hoc, ergo propter hoc

straw man

no fallacy involved


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