Job Diversity Analysis – Human Resource

This chapter covers Job Diversity Analysis – Human Resource


differences in human characteristics and composition in an organization


effort directed toward accomplishing results

work flow analysis

study of way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization


grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for an employee

business process reengineering

measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery

job design

organizing tasks, duties, responsibilities, and other elements into a productive unit of work

contingent worker

someone who is not an employee, but a temporary or part-time worker for a specific period of time and type of work

person-job fit

matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs

job enlargement

broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed

job enrichment

increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, or evaluating the job

job rotation

process of shifting a person from job to job

job sharing

scheduling arrangement in which two employees perform the work of one full-time job

skill variety

extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion

task identity

extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome

task significance

impact the job has on other people


extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling


the amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed

special-purpose team

organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance the quality of products and services

self-directed team

organizational team composed of individuals who are assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished

virtual team

organizational team composed of individuals who are separated geographically but linked by communications technology


employees work with technology via electronic, telecommunications, and internet means

compressed workweek

a workweek in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than five 8-hour days


scheduling arrangement in which employees work a set number of hours a day but vary starting and ending times

job analysis

systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the content, context, and human requirements of jobs


distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions


work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual


obligations to perform certain tasks and duties


individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams

marginal job functions

duties that are part of a job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of the job

job description

identification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job

job specifications

the knowledge, skills, and abilities an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily

performance standards

indicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of the job description

approaches to diversity

ignore diversity
begin the process of dealing with diversity
build acceptance of diversity
solve diversity issues and create an inclusive culture

ignore diversity

status quo is protected, possible legal issues are increased, diversity is not important

begin the process of dealing with diversity

Diversity training is provided, affirmative action compliance occurs, protected classes are a focus, conflicts and problems occur

build acceptance of diversity

Diversity pays off for company
Conflicts are reduced
Internal problem solving takes place

solve diversity issues and create an inclusive culture

Diversity permeates the company, problems are approached proactively, everyone gets along, business results improve

approaches to job design

job simplification
job enlargement and job enrichment
job rotation
job sharing

job simplification

appropriate for jobs that are to be staffed with entry-level employees
May be too boring to some people

job enlargement and job enrichment

giving employee an entire job rather than just a piece of the work
Allowing the employee more flexibility to perform the job as needed
Increasing the employee’s accountability for work by reducing external control
Expanding assignments for employees to do new tasks and develop special areas of expertise
Directing feedback reports to the employee rather than only to management

job analysis methods

observation, employee diary/log, interviewing, questionnaires


observes individual performing the job and takes notes to describe tasks and duties performed
work sampling: does not require attention to each detailed action throughout entire work cycle, determine content and pace of typical workday through statistical sampling, use for routine and repetitive jobs

employee diary/log

“observe” their own performances by keeping log of their job duties, how frequently these duties are performed, and time required for each one


talk with employees performing each job
employee and employee’s supervisor must be interviewed


Covers duties and percentage of time spent on duties, contact with other people, physical dimensions, jobholder characteristics, decisions made, and supervision
Position Analysis Questionnaire
Managerial job analysis questionnaire

position analysis questionnaire

focuses on worker oriented elements instead of job-oriented elements

managerial job analysis questionnaire

jobs with clearly observable routines and procedures

importance of job analysis

Systematic investigation of the content, context, and human requirements of a job
5 stages
Behavioral reactions of employees and managers and legal-compliance issues must be considered

5 stages of job analysis

planning job analysis, preparing for and introducing job analysis, conducting the job analysis, developing job descriptions and job specifications, maintaining and updating job descriptions and job specifications

legal aspect of job analysis

Job Analysis and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Fair Labor Standards Act

Fair Labor Standards Act

To qualify for an exemption from the overtime provisions of the act

Job Analysis and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA

essential job functions