Earth & Space Science – Final Examination

Earth & Space Science – Final Exam

These chapters include Stars last phase, Earth temperatures, global warming & Space Science – Final Examination is based on these chapter


Which type of spectrum is associated with the radiation of most stars?

absorption spectrum – Correct

emission spectrum

continuous spectrum


In general, what is true about places at higher altitudes?

They have cooler temperatures than places at lower altitudes – Correct

They have the same temperatures as places at lower altitudes.

They have warmer temperatures than places at lower altitudes.


What factor distinguishes wet tropical climates from tropical wet and dry climates?

precipitation – Correct

temperature

mountain ranges


Stellar distances are usually expressed in what units?

miles

kilometers

light years – Correct


How long does it take the moon to go from full-moon phase to new-moon phase?

one week

two weeks

four weeks – Correct


Based on figure 17-1 (above), what is likely true of City B?

Its temperature is strongly influenced by prevailing ocean winds – Correct

It has hot summers and cold winters.

It is located on a leeward coast.


Which of the following is the most common type of galaxy?

elliptical

irregular

spiral – Correct


The oldest features of the moon are the

highlands – Correct

maria.

craters.


Most asteroids lie between the orbits of

Mercury and Venus.

Earth and Mars.

Mars and Jupiter – Correct


Which type of climate is associated with savannas?

wet tropical

tropical wet and dry – Correct

humid subtropical


What will be the final stage in the sun’s life cycle?

red giant – Correct

planetary nebula

black dwarf


All stars, regardless of size, eventually

explode.

become black holes.

run out of fuel and collapse – Correct


In figure 20-1 (above), which of the following is characteristic of the air mass labeled F?

hot and dry – Correct

hot and wet

cold and dry


The product of nuclear fusion is

hydrogen.

oxygen.

helium – Correct


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high-pressure system blow

clockwise toward the center.

counterclockwise toward the center.

clockwise outward from the center – Correct


Which cloud type consists of globular cloud masses with a cauliflower structure?

cumulus – Correct

cirrus

stratus


Which of the following can change from one state of matter to another at the temperatures and pressures experienced at Earth’s surface?

nitrogen

oxygen

water – Correct


The eye of a hurricane has the

highest wind speed.

warmest temperature – Correct

most intense rainfall.


Based on figure 17-1 (above), what is likely true of City A?

It is located on a windward coast.

It has cool summers and mild winters.

It is located on a leeward coast – Correct


Which of the following statements is true?

All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy – Correct

Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good reflectors as well.

Cooler objects radiate more total energy per unit area than do hotter objects.


A land breeze usually originates during the

evening and flows toward the land.

day and flows toward the land.

evening and flows toward the water – Correct


Fifty percent of the gases that make up the atmosphere are found below an altitude of

5.6 kilometers – Correct

10.4 kilometers.

16.2 kilometers.


In figure 19-1 (above), the lines on a weather map that connect points of equal
pressure are called

isobars – Correct

contour lines

isotherms.


Maritime air masses form

over land.

over water – Correct

only in winter.


Which planet’s axis of rotation lies nearly parallel with the plane of its orbit?

Mercury

Saturn

Uranus – Correct


One astronomical unit (AU) averages about

39 million kilometers.

150 million kilometers – Correct

210 million kilometers.


Centers of low pressure are called

anticyclones.

jet streams.

cyclones – Correct


A low cloud that blankets the sky and often generates precipitation is called a(n)

cirrostratus cloud.

altostratus cloud.

nimbostratus cloud – Correct


Which of the following supports the big bang theory?

pulsars

cosmic background radiation – Correct

galactic clusters


How would the climate of a coastal city differ from that of a city at the same latitude located farther inland?

The coastal city would have cooler summers – Correct

The coastal city would have colder winters.

The cities are at the same latitude so their climates would not differ.


What is true about relative humidity?

It indicates how near the air is to saturation – Correct

It indicates the actual quantity of water vapor in the air.

It is a general term used to describe the amount of water vapor in the air.


The wet adiabatic rate of cooling is less than the dry rate because

wet air is unsaturated.

dry air is less dense.

of the release of latent heat – Correct


Increased altitude generally causes lower

relative humidity.

temperatures – Correct

wind velocity.


What is the ultimate energy source for most wind?

Earth’s rotation

tides

solar radiation – Correct


A steep pressure gradient

produces strong winds – Correct

is only possible in the tropics.

produces light winds.


Which type of air mass originates in northern Canada?

maritime tropical (mT)

continental polar (cP) – Correct

maritime polar (mP)


In which type of front is the flow of air on both sides of the front almost parallel to the line of the front?

warm

stationary – Correct

cold


The boundary that separates different air masses is called

a front – Correct

a cyclone.

an anticyclone.


The apparent westward movement of a planet against the background of stars is called

retrograde motion – Correct

revolution.

rotation.


What is the first sign of an approaching warm front?

stratus clouds

cirrus clouds – Correct

nimbostratus clouds


A continental tropical (cT) air mass is

cold and dry.

hot and wet.

hot and dry – Correct


A wind that consistently blows more often from one direction than from any other is called a

local wind

prevailing wind – Correct

trade wind


The force exerted by the weight of the air above is called

air pressure – Correct

convergence.

the Coriolis effect.


The net inward movement of air causes the area occupied by an air mass to shrink, a process known as

horizontal divergence.

horizontal convergence – Correct

vertical divergence.


Which phenomenon is associated with surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific that are colder than average?

La Niña – Correct

El Niño

global warming


About 90 percent of stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are

supergiants.

main-sequence stars – Correct

white dwarfs.


Which planet has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and high surface temperature?

Venus – Correct

Mars

Mercury


What kind of shape is associated with a middle-latitude cyclone?

circle

wave – Correct

square


Which astronomer spent 20 years plotting the positions of the planets?

Newton

Galileo

Brahe – Correct


How old is the moon?

much older than Earth

about the same age as Earth – Correct

much younger than Earth


Widely spaced isobars indicate

high winds.

variable winds.

light winds – Correct


The sun’s surface is made up mostly of

helium.

ammonia.

hydrogen – Correct


Fast-moving currents of air that occur above the friction layer are called

wind trains.

jet streams – Correct

mesocyclones.


When an active cold front overtakes a warm front,

the fronts cancel each other out.

a stationary front forms.

an occluded front forms – Correct


Which features on Mars point to the possibility of liquid water on the planet?

mountain ranges with faults

gullies and streamlike channels – Correct

volcanic cones with craters


Which of the following terms best describes air?

an element

a compound

a mixture – Correct


Thunderstorms form when warm, humid air rises in a(n)

unstable environment – Correct

stable environment.

clockwise spiral.


Which two properties characterize an air mass?

moisture and pressure

temperature and pressure

temperature and moisture – Correct


The rain shadow effect is associated with

oceans.

latitude.

mountains – Correct


The fact that light can exert pressure on matter suggests that it is made of particles called

electrons.

protons.

photons – Correct


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a low-pressure system blow

clockwise toward the center.

counterclockwise toward the center – Correct

clockwise outward from the center.


At night clouds act as a blanket by

absorbing incoming radiation.

absorbing outgoing radiation – Correct

reflecting incoming radiation.


What is true about radiation?

It can travel through a vacuum – Correct

It travels in one direction from its source.

It needs a medium through which to travel.


In dry climates, rates of evaporation exceed

rates of condensation.

rates of precipitation – Correct

number of sunny days.


One of the planets known to have rings is

Venus.

Mars.

Uranus – Correct


Which of the following terms best describes air?
a. element
b. compound
c. mixture – Correct
d. none of the above


The form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule is called _____.

ozone


What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?

troposphere


Most important weather phenomena occur in the ______.

troposphere


Fifty percent of the gases that make up the atmosphere are found below _____.

5.6 kilometers


When does the summer solstice occur in the Northern Hemisphere?

June 21st or June 22nd


When does the autumnal equinox occur in the Southern Hemisphere?

March 21st or 22nd


On which date does the Antarctic Circle have 24 hours of daylight?
a. June 21/22
b. September 21/22
c. March 21/22
d. December 21/22 – Correct


Which of the following is true about equinoxes?
a. They occur in June and December,
b. The sun’s vertical rays are striking either 23.5°S or 23.5°N
c. Days and nights are equal in length everywhere – Correct
d.The length of daylight in the Arctic and Antarctic Circles is 24 hours


At which latitude would you expect the sun to be directly overhead at noon on April 21?
a. 0°
b. 8°S
c. 8°N – Correct
d. 23.5°N


All matters composed of atoms or molecules that have energy of motion, also known as ______.

kinetic energy


When air transfers energy to a cooler object, what happens to the air temperature?

It decreases


What causes heat, or the transfer of energy from one object to another?

differences in temperature


What process describes the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity?

conduction


On average, how much of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s outer atmosphere is reflected back into space?

30%


Earth receives energy from the sun through what method of heat transfer?

radiation


The two most important heat-absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ___________.

water vapor and carbon dioxide


Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  • a. All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy
  • b. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation
  • c. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than do colder objects
  • d. Objects that are good absorders of radiation are good reflectors as well – Correct

Which of the following is associated with weak light rays that travel in different directions?
a. reflection
b. conduction
c. scattering – Correct
d. convection


Which of the following is NOT a temperature control?
a. geographical position
b. ocean currents
c. nitrogen – Correct
d. cloud cover


In general, what is true about places at higher altitudes?
a. They have cooler temperatures than places at lower altitudes – Correct
b. They have the same temperatures as places at lower altitudes
c. They have warmer temperatures than places at lower altitudes
d. They have less predictable temperatures than places at lower altitudes


Which of the following best describes the temperatures of a city located along a windward coast?
a. warmer summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude
b. cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude – Correct
c. summer temperatures that are very similar to an inland location at the latitude
d. winter temperatures that are less mild than an inland location at the same latitude


Which of the following is true?
a. Land heats less rapidly than water
b. Land heats more rapidly than water
c. Land reaches higher temperatures than water
d. Both b and c – Correct


Why are annual temperature ranges in the Southern Hemisphere generally smaller than those in the Northern Hemisphere?

There is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere


Which of the following best describes temperature variations?
a. Variations are greater over land than over water – Correct
b. Variations are greater over water than over land.
c. Variations are the same over water and land.
d. Variations over water cannot be determined.


Which of the following best describes the general air temperature on a cloudy night?
a. lower than on a clear night
b. higher than on a clear night – Correct
c. the same as on a clear night
d. less predictable than on a clear night


Many clouds have a high albedo and therefore tend to _____.

reflect sunlight


At night, clouds act as a blanket by ______.

absorbing outgoing radiation


The force exerted by the weight of the air above is called _____.

air pressure


In which direction is air pressure exerted?
a. upward
b. sideways
c. downward
d. all of the above – Correct


Standard sea level pressure in millibars is _____.

1013.2


What is the ultimate energy source for most wind?

solar radiation


What force generates winds?

pressure differences


Which of the following is NOT a force that influences wind?
a. Coriolis effect
b.pressure gradient
c. magnetic field – Correct
d. friction


A steep pressure gradient produces ______.

produces strong winds


Widely spaced isobars indicate ______.

light winds


Variations in air pressure from place to place are the principal cause of ____.

wind


High-altitude, high-velocity “rivers” of air are called ________.

jet streams


The Coriolis effect influences ______.

wind direction


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with low-pressure system blow ______.

counterclockwise toward the center


In the Southern Hemisphere, winds associated with low-pressure system blow ______.

clockwise toward the center


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with high-pressure system blow ______.

clockwise outward from the center


Centers of low pressure are called _____.

cyclones


Air subsides in the center of a(n) ______.

high-pressure system


High-pressure systems are usually associated with…

descending air, relatively dry conditions, clear weather


The general movement of low-pressure centers across the United States is from _____.

west to east


Which of the following does NOT describe the surface air movement of a Northern Hemisphere low?
a. inward
b. counterclockwise
c. net upward movement
d. divergent – Correct


What is NOT true about lows that move across the United States?
a. They can produce bad weather.
b. Their paths are very predictable – Correct
c. They move in roughly a west-to-east direction.
d. They may require up to a week to cross the country.


Which surface winds blow between the subtropical high and the equator?
a. trade winds – Correct
b. polar easterlies
c. sea breezes
d. westerlies


The deserts of the Sahara and Australia are associated with the ____.
a. equatorial low
b. subtropical high – Correct
c. subpolar low
d. polar high


Near the equator, rising air is associated with a pressure zone known as the ____.

equatorial low


If earth did not rotate, how would air at the equator move?

Air would rise and move toward the poles.


Valley and mountain breezes are examples of _____.

local winds


A sea breeze usually originates during the _____.

evening and flows toward the water


When is a sea breeze most intense?

during mid- to late afternoon


A wind that consistently blows more often from one direction than from any other is called a _______.

prevailing wind


Winds are labeled according to which of the following?
a. whether they originate on land or water
b. the direction from which they blow – Correct
c. the region in which they can be found
d. none of the above


Which phenomenon is associated with surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific that are colder than average?
a. La Nina – Correct
b. El Nino
c. global warming
d. local winds


Which of the following can be impacted by El Nino?
a. the fish industry
b. climate
c. the farming industry
d. all of the above – Correct


an immense body of air characterized by similar properties at any given altitude is known as a(n)
a. cyclone
b. air mass – Correct
c. anticyclone
d. front


which two properties characterize an air mass?
a. temperature and location
b. temperature and pressure
c. temperature and moisture – Correct
d. moisture and pressure


a cold, dry air mass that moves over warm, tropical waters will likely become
a. colder and drier
b. warmer and drier
c. colder and wetter
d. warmer and wetter – Correct


an air mass gets its characteristic properties from an area known as the
a. weather site
b. place of origin
c. classification region – Correct
d. source region


which type of air mass originates in northern canada?
a. mT
b. cP – Correct
c. mP
d. cT


maritime air masses from
a. over land
b. over water – Correct
c. only in winter
d. only in summer


which of the following is NOT an area where maritime tropical air masses that affect North America originate?
a. gulf of mexico
b. caribbean sea
c. hudson bay – Correct
d. atlantic ocean


an mT air mass is best described as
a. cold and dry
b. warm and dry
c. cold and wet
d. warm and wet – Correct


a cT air mass is
a. cold and dry
b. cold and wet
c. hot and dry – Correct
d. hot and wet


which air mass often originates as a different air mass in Siberia and is subsequently altered
a. mT
b. cP
c. mP – Correct
d. cT


in figure 20-1, which of the following is characteristic of the air mass labeled F?
a. hot and dry
b. hot and wet
c. hot in summer
d. both a and c – Correct


in figure 20-1, which air masses would be associated with cold, wet conditions?
a. a and e
b. b and d
c. a and d – Correct
d. g and f


which air masses have the greatest effect on weather conditions in much of the US?
a. cP and mT – Correct
b. mP and cP
c. mP and cT
d. mT and cT


which air masses may produce an occasional “nor” easter during winter?
a. mT
b. cP
c. mP – Correct
d. cT


which air mass is the source of much of the precipitation in the central and eastern US?
a. mT – Correct
b. cP
c. mP
d. cT


lake-effect snow is associated with which air mass?
a. mT
b. cP – Correct
c. mP
d. cT


the boundary that separates different air masses is called a(n)
a. front – Correct
b. cyclone
c. anticyclone
d. storm


on a weather map, which type of front is shown by a line with triangular points on one side?
a. warm
b. cold – correct
c. stationary
d. occluded


on a weather map, which type of front is shown by a line with semicircles extending from one side?
a. warm – Correct
b. cold
c. stationary
d. occluded


which type of front forms when the surface position of the front does not move?
a. warm
b. cold
c. stationary – Correct
d. occluded


in which type of front is the flow of air on both sides of the front almost parallel to the line of the front?
a. warm
b. stationary – Correct
c. cold
d. occluded


which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses?
a. warm front
b. cold front
c. both warm front and cold front – Correct
d. neither warm front nor cold front


when an active cold front overtakes a warm front
a. the fronts cancel each other out
b. cloud formation ceases
c. an occluded front forms – Correct
d. a stationary front forms


along which type front is the intensity of precipitation generally heavy, but short-lived?
a. warm front
b. cold front – Correct
c. stationary front
d. occluded front


along a front, which type of air is always forced upwards?
a. cooler, denser air
b. warmer, less dense – Correct
c. the driest air
d. the wettest air


what is the first sign of an approaching warm front?
a. stratus clouds
b. warm air mass – Correct
c. nimbostratus clouds
d. cumulus clouds


the weather behind a cold front is dominated by which of the following?
a. cold air mass – Correct
b. warm air mass
c. mixed air mass
d. none of the above


which stage happens first in the life cycle of the middle-latitude cyclone?
a. occlusion begins
b. a front forms – Correct
c. wave shape forms
d. air flows counterclockwise


how does surface air flow in a middle-latitude cyclone in the northern hemisphere?
a. divergent and clockwise
b. divergent and counterclockwise
c. convergent and clockwise
d. convergent and counterclockwise – Correct


which of the following best describes the pressure in a middle-latitude cyclone?
a. pressure decreases toward the center – correct
b. pressure remains the same everywhere
c. pressure increases toward the center
d. the pressure is not predictable


what type of front usually produces several hours of light-to-moderate precipitation over a large region?
a. warm front – Correct
b. cold front
c. both warm front and cold front
d. neither warm front nor cold front


why is the first stage of a thunderstorm?
a. cumulus stage – Correct
b. cumulonimbus stage
c. mature stage
d. dissipating stage


the greatest number of thunderstorms occurs in the
a. middle latitudes
b. tropics – Correct
c. mountains
d. high latitudes


thunderstorms form when warm, humid air rises in a(n)
a. unstable environment – Correct
b. stable environment
c. clockwise spiral
d. counterclockwise spiral


the mature stage of a thunderstorm is associated with which of the following?
a. downdrafts
b. heavy precipitation
c. updrafts
d. both b and c – Correct


a rotating column of air is called a(n)
a. hurricane
b. anticyclone
c. vortex – Correct
d. cumulonimbus cloud


the center of a tornado is characterized by its
a. very high pressure
b. eye walk
c. low pressure – Correct
d. sinking air


which is the following would likely have the greatest range of pressure?
a. tornado – Correct
b. middle-latitude cyclone
c. hurricane
d. all the same pressure


tornadoes are most frequent from
a. january to march
b. april and june – Correct
c. october and december
d. july to august


hurricanes are classified according to intensity using the
a. richter scale
b. doppler scale
c. saffir-simpson scale – Correct
d. fujita scale


typhoon is another name for
a. wave cyclone
b. hurricane – Correct
c. tornado
d. thunderstorm


hurricanes form in tropical waters between the latitudes of
a. 0 and 5 degrees
b. 5 and 20 degrees – Correct
c. 20 and 30 degrees
d. 30 and 40 degrees


the eye of a hurricane has the
a. highest wind speeds
b. warmest temperatures – Correct
c. most intense rainfall
d. highest air pressure


what causes a hurricane to lose energy when he moves onto land?
a. friction
b. lack of warm, moist air
c. hearing from below by land
d. both a and b – Correct


what kind of shape is associated with a middle-latitude cyclone?
a. circle
b. wave – Correct
c. square
d. triangle


The force exerted by the weight of the air above is called ____.

  • a. air pressure – Correct
  • b. convergence
  • c. the Coriolis effect
  • d. divergence

In which direction is air pressure exerted?

  • a. upward
  • b. downward
  • c. sideways
  • d. all of the above – Correct

Which of these instruments is NOT used to measure air pressure?
a. mercury barometer c. anemometer – Correct
b. aneroid d. All are used to measure air pressure.


Standard sea level pressure in millibars is ____.
a. 750.1 c. 1000
b. 980.5 d. 1013.2 – Correct


Who invented the mercury barometer?
a. Galileo c. Newton
b. Torricelli – Correct d. Watt


What is the ultimate energy source for most wind?
a. Earth’s rotation c. solar radiation – Correct
b. Earth’s revolution d. tides


Which force generates winds?
a. the Coriolis effect c. pressure differences – Correct
b. gravity d. friction


Which of the following is NOT a force that influences wind?
a. Coriolis effect c. pressure gradient
b. magnetic field – Correct d. friction


In Figure 19-1, the lines on the weather map that connect points of equal pressure are ____.
a. isobars – Correct c. contour lines
b. isogrids d. isotherms


In Figure 19-1, closely spaced lines indicate ____.
a. high winds – Correct c. variable winds
b. light winds d. cyclonic winds


A steep pressure gradient ____.
a. would be depicted by widely spaced isobars
b. produces strong winds – Correct
c. is only possible in the tropics
d. produces light winds


Widely spaced isobars indicate ____.
a. high winds c. light winds – Correct
b. variable winds d. winds oriented north to south


Variations in air pressure from place to place are the principal cause of ____.
a. snow c. wind – Correct
b. rain d. clouds


Fast-moving currents of air that occur above the friction layer are called ____.
a. wind trains c. chinooks
b. mesocyclones d. jet streams – Correct


High-altitude, high-velocity “rivers” of air are called ____.
a. cyclones b. anticyclones c. jet streams – Correct d. tornadoes


The Coriolis effect influences ____.
a. wind speed c. both wind speed and wind direction
b. wind direction – Correct d. neither wind speed nor wind direction


The deflection of wind due to the Coriolis effect is strongest at ____.
a. the equator c. midnight
b. the midlatitudes d. the poles – Correct


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a low-pressure system blow ____.
a. counterclockwise toward the center – Correct
b. clockwise toward the center
c. clockwise outward from the center
d. counterclockwise outward from the center


In the Southern Hemisphere, winds associated with a low-pressure system blow ____.
a. clockwise toward the center – Correct
b. counterclockwise toward the center
c. clockwise outward from the center
d. counterclockwise outward from the center


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high-pressure system blow ____.
a. counterclockwise toward the center
b. clockwise toward the center
c. clockwise outward from the center – Correct
d. counterclockwise outward from the center


Centers of low pressure are called ____.
a. anticyclones c. jet streams
b. air masses d. cyclones – Correct


Air subsides in the center of a(n) ____.
a. low-pressure system c. jet stream
b. high-pressure system – Correct d. area of surface convergence


Fair weather can usually be expected with the approach of which of the following?
a. cyclone c. low-pressure system
b. anticyclone – Correct d. none of the above


High-pressure systems are usually associated with which of the following?
a. descending air c. relatively dry conditions
b. clear weather d. all of the above – Correct


The general movement of low-pressure centers across the United States is from ____.
a. north to south c. west to east – Correct
b. south to north d. east to west


Which of the following does NOT describe the surface air movement of a Northern Hemisphere low?
a. inward c. net upward movement
b. counterclockwise d. divergent – Correct


What is NOT true about lows that move across the United States?
a. They can produce bad weather.
b. Their paths are very predictable. – Correct
c. They move in roughly a west-to-east direction.
d. They may require up to a week to cross the country.


The net inward movement of air causes the area occupied by an air mass to shrink, a process known as ____.
a. horizontal divergence c. vertical divergence
b. horizontal convergence – Correct d. vertical convergence


Seasonal changes in wind direction associated with large landmasses and adjacent water bodies are called
____.
a. polar fronts c. monsoons – Correct
b. jet streams d. trade winds


Which surface winds blow between the subtropical high and the equator?
a. trade winds – Correct c. sea breezes
b. polar easterlies d. westerlies


The deserts of the Sahara and Australia are associated with the ____.
a. equatorial low c. subpolar low
b. subtropical high – Correct d. polar high


The only truly continuous pressure belt on Earth is the ____.
a. Northern Hemisphere subtropical high c. Southern Hemisphere subpolar low – Correct
b. equatorial low d. Northern Hemisphere subpolar low


In the winter, large landmasses such as Asia develop a seasonal ____.
a. high-pressure system – Correct c. low-pressure system
b. system of trade winds d. cyclonic circulation


Near the equator, rising air is associated with a pressure zone known as the ____.
a. equatorial high c. tropical low
b. equatorial low – Correct d. tropical high


If Earth did not rotate, how would air at the equator move?
a. Air would sink and move toward the poles.
b. Air would rise and move toward the poles. – Correct
c. There would be no air movement.
d. none of the above


Valley and mountain breezes are examples of ____.
a. global winds c. local winds – Correct
b. trade winds d. jet streams


A sea breeze usually originates during the ____.
a. evening and flows toward the land c. evening and flows toward the water
b. day and flows toward the land – Correct d. day and flows toward the water


A land breeze usually originates during the ____.
a. evening and flows toward the land c. evening and flows toward the water – Correct
b. day and flows toward the land d. day and flows toward the water


When is a sea breeze most intense?
a. during mid- to late afternoon – Correct c. in the late morning
b. in the late evening d. at sunrise


A wind that consistently blows more often from one direction than from any other is called a ____.
a. local wind c. trade wind
b. prevailing wind – Correct d. jet stream


Which instrument is used to measure wind speed?
a. anemometer – Correct c. thermometer
b. barometer d. all of the above


Winds are labeled according to which of the following?
a. whether they originate on land or water
b. the direction from which they blow – Correct
c. the region in which they can be found
d. none of the above


Which phenomenon is associated with surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific that are colder than
average?
a. La Niña – Correct c. global warming
b. El Niño d. local winds


Which of the following is a warm countercurrent that periodically flows southward along the coasts of
Ecuador and Peru?
a. mountain breeze c. El Niño
b. La Niña d. none of the above – Correct


Which of the following can be impacted by El Niño?
a. the fish industry c. the farming industry
b. climate d. all of the above – Correct


Air pressure pushing down on an object exactly ____________________ the air pressure pushing up on the
object.

balances


In a mercury barometer, when air pressure increases, the mercury in the tube _____________

rises


Air flows from areas of ____________________ pressure to areas of ____________________ pressure

higher, lower


The Coriolis effect deflects all free-moving objects to the right of their path of motion in the
____________________ Hemisphere.

northern


The deflection of wind caused by the Coriolis effect is always directed at ____________________ angles to
the direction of airflow.

right


In the Northern Hemisphere, winds blow inward and ____________________ around a low.

counterclockwise


In anticyclones, the values of the isobars ____________________ from the outside toward the center.

increase


Friction causes a net flow of air ____________________ around a cyclone

inward


The subtropical high and the ____________________ high are areas of dry, sinking air that produce
prevailing winds.

polar


In India, rainy monsoons occur during the season of _________

summer


In coastal areas during the summer, land heats up more during ____________________ than does the
adjacent body of water.

the day


After sunset in mountainous areas, ____________________ air moves downslope into the valley.

cool


On a degree scale for a wind vane, ____________________ degrees indicates east.

90


The opposite of El Niño is ______________

la nina


What is air pressure?

the pressure exerted by the weight of air above


What happens to the height of the mercury column in a barometer when air pressure decreases?

the height of the column decreases


What three factors work together to control wind?

pressure differences, the Coriolis effect, and friction


How does wind speed affect the Coriolis effect?

The stronger the wind, the greater the deflection of the Coriolis effect.


What are anticyclones?

centers of high pressure


What are cyclones?

centers of low pressure


How does friction affect the net flow of air around a cyclone and an anticyclone?

Friction causes a net flow of air inward around a cyclone and outward around an anticyclone


What four pressure zones dominate the model of global air circulation?

subtropical high, polar high, equatorial low, and subpolar low


Why is the only continuous pressure belt located in the Southern Hemisphere?

There are no landmasses to interrupt that particular pressure belt.


What causes local winds?

topographic effects or variations in surface composition in the immediate area


Which winds move weather across the United States?

prevailing westerlies


Which ocean does El Niño affect?

the Pacific Ocean


An immense body of air characterized by similar properties at any given altitude is known as a(n) ____.
a. cyclone c. anticyclone
b. air mass – Correct d. front


Which two properties characterize an air mass?
a. temperature and location c. temperature and moisture – Correct
b. temperature and pressure d. moisture and pressure


A cold, dry air mass that moves over warm, tropical waters will likely become ____.
a. colder and drier c. colder and wetter
b. warmer and drier d. warmer and wetter – Correct


An air mass gets its characteristic properties from an area known as the ____.
a. weather site c. classification region
b. place of origin d. source region – Correct


Which type of air mass originates in northern Canada?
a. mT c. mP
b. cP – Correct d. cT


Maritime air masses form ____.
a. over land c. only in winter
b. over water – Correct d. only in summer


Which of the following is NOT an area where maritime tropical air masses that affect North America
originate?
a. Gulf of Mexico c. Hudson Bay – Correct
b. Caribbean Sea d. Atlantic Ocean


An mT air mass is best described as ____.
a. cold and dry c. cold and wet
b. warm and dry d. warm and wet – Correct


A cT air mass is ____.
a. cold and dry c. hot and dry – Correct
b. cold and wet d. hot and wet


Which air mass often originates as a different air mass in Siberia and is subsequently altered?
a. mT c. mP – Correct
b. cP d. cT


Which air masses have the greatest effect on weather conditions in much of the United States?
a. cP and mT – Correct c. mP and cT
b. mP and cP d. mT and cT


Which air mass may produce an occasional “nor’easter” during winter?
a. mT c. mP – Correct
b. cP d. cT


Which air mass is the source of much of the precipitation in the central and eastern United States?
a. mT – Correct c. mP
b. cP d. cT


Lake-effect snow is associated with which air mass?
a. mT c. mP
b. cP – Correct d. cT


The boundary that separates different air masses is called a(n) ____.
a. front – Correct c. anticyclone
b. cyclone d. storm


On a weather map, which type of front is shown by a line with triangular points on one side?
a. warm c. stationary
b. cold – Correct d. occluded


On a weather map, which type of front is shown by a line with semicircles extending from one side?

a. warm – Correct c. stationary
b. cold d. occluded


What type of front forms when the surface position of the front does not move?
a. warm c. stationary – Correct
b. cold d. occluded


In which type of front is the flow of air on both sides of the front almost parallel to the line of the front?
a. warm c. cold
b. stationary – Correct d. occluded


Which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses?
a. warm front c. both warm front and cold front – Correct
b. cold front d. neither warm front nor cold front


When an active cold front overtakes a warm front, ____.
a. the fronts cancel each other out c. an occluded front forms – Correct
b. cloud formation ceases d. a stationary front forms


Along which type of front is the intensity of precipitation generally heavy, but short-lived?
a. warm front c. stationary front
b. cold front – Correct d. occluded front


Along a front, which type of air is always forced upwards?
a. cooler, denser air c. the driest air
b. warmer, less dense air – Correct d. the wettest air


What is the first sign of an approaching warm front?
a. stratus clouds c. nimbostratus clouds
b. cirrus clouds – Correct d. cumulus clouds


The weather behind a cold front is dominated by which of the following?
a. cold air mass – Correct c. mixed air mass
b. warm air mass d. none of the above


What kind of shape is associated with a middle-latitude cyclone?
a. circle c. square
b. wave – Correct d. triangle


b. A front forms

Which stage happens first in the life cycle of a middle-latitude cyclone?
a. Occlusion begins. c. Wave shape forms.
b. A front forms. – Correct d. Air flows counterclockwise.


How does surface air flow in a middle-latitude cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere?
a. divergent and clockwise c. convergent and clockwise
b. divergent and counterclockwise d. convergent and counterclockwise – Correct


Which of the following best describes the pressure in a middle-latitude cyclone?
a. Pressure decreases toward the center. – Correct
b. Pressure remains the same everywhere.
c. Pressure increases toward the center.
d. The pressure is not predictable.


What type of front usually produces several hours of light-to-moderate precipitation over a large region?
a. warm front – Correct c. both warm front and cold front
b. cold front d. neither warm front nor cold front


What is the first stage of a thunderstorm?
a. cumulus stage – Correct c. mature stage
b. cumulonimbus stage d. dissipating stage


The greatest number of thunderstorms occur in the ____.
a. middle latitudes c. mountains b. tropics – Correct d. high latitudes


Thunderstorms form when warm, humid air rises in a(n) ____.
a. unstable environment – Correct c. clockwise spiral
b. stable environment d. counterclockwise spiral


The mature stage of a thunderstorm is associated with which of the following?
a. downdrafts c. updrafts
b. heavy precipitation d. both b and c – Correct


A rotating column of air is called a(n) ____.
a. hurricane c. vortex – Correct
b. anticyclone d. cumulonimbus cloud


The center of a tornado is characterized by its ____.
a. very high pressure c. low pressure – Correct
b. eye wall d. sinking air


Which of the following would likely have the greatest range of pressure?
a. tornado – Correct c. hurricane
b. middle-latitude cyclone d. All have the same pressure.


Tornadoes are most frequent from ____.
a. January to March c. October to December
b. April to June – Correct d. July to August


Hurricanes are classified according to intensity using the ____.

  • a. Richter scale
  • b. Doppler scale
  • c. Saffir-Simpson scale – Correct
  • d. Fujita scale

Typhoon is another name for ____.

  • a. wave cyclone
  • b. hurricane – Correct
  • c. tornado
  • d. thunderstorm

Hurricanes form in tropical waters between the latitudes of ____.

  • a. 0 and 5 degrees
  • b. 5 and 20 degrees – Correct
  • c. 20 and 30 degrees
  • d. 30 and 40 degrees

What causes a hurricane to lose energy when it moves onto land?

  • a. friction
  • b. lack of warm, moist air
  • c. heating from below by land
  • d. both a and b – Correct

The eye of a hurricane has the ____

  • a. highest wind speeds
  • b. warmest temperatures – Correct
  • c. most intense rainfall
  • d. highest air pressure

46. Weather patterns such as summer heat waves and winter cold spells are caused by large bodies of air called
____________________.

air masses


The terms ____________________ and ____________________ describe the moisture characteristics of air
masses.

continental, maritime


The terms ____________________ and ____________________ describe the temperature characteristics of
air masses

polar, tropical


A(n) ____________________ air mass is uniformly cold and dry in winter and cool and dry in summer.

continental polar


In the Great Lakes region during winter, ____________________ air masses can cause lake-effect snow.

continental polar


When two air masses meet, they form a(n) ____________________, which is a boundary that separates two
air masses.

front


If an observer sees cirrus clouds, followed later by cirrostratus, and then altostratus, he or she is witnessing
the approach of a(n) ____________________ front.

warm


During the life cycle of a middle-latitude cyclone, the process of ____________________ occurs when a cold
front overtakes a warm front and the warm air is forced upward.

occlusion


Middle-latitude cyclones are large centers of ____________________ pressure that generally travel from
west to east and cause stormy weather.

low


At any given time, there are an estimated ____________________ thunderstorms in progress on Earth.

2000


A(n) ____________________ is a vertical cylinder of rotating air that develops in the updraft of a thunderstorm

mesocyclone


________ are the most powerful storms on Earth.

hurricanes


When would you expect the characteristics of an air mass to change?

when the air mass moves over a new surface


Which two criteria are used to classify air masses?

source region and overall temperature


Describe an mP air mass.

wet and cold


Which air masses have the least influence on the weather of North America?

continental tropical


How are stationary fronts shown on a weather map?

stationary front are shown by blue triangles on one side of the front and red semi circles on the other side


What two factors account for the violent weather often associated with cold fronts?

the rate of movement of the front and steepness of its slope


What usually fuels a middle-latitude cyclone?

the development of a front


What kind of weather conditions are associated with “nor’easters”?

snow and cold temperatures


Why does the western edge of the United States have so few thunderstorms?

maritime tropical air seldom penetrates this region


What scale is used to measure tornado intensity?

fujita tornado intensity scale


When is a tornado warning issued?

when a tornado is sighted


What is a hurricane?

a whirling tropical cyclone that produces winds of at least 119 kilometers per hour


Where are the heaviest rains and fastest winds of a hurricane found?

eye wall


What is a storm surge?

a dome of water about 65 to 80 kilometers wide that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane’s eye moves
onto land


What are some forms of electromagnetic radiation?

gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves


What does a prism do?

seperates visible light into several colors


Which type of spectrum can be produced by a solid, liquid, or gas?

continuous spectrum


What information does a star’s spectrum offer about the star?

chemical composition


Which type of spectrum is associated with the radiation of most stars?

absorption spectrum


What is the change in wavelength that occurs when an object moves toward or away from a source?

Doppler effect


Using the Doppler effect, astronomers can determine a star’s…

movement toward or away from Earth


What advantage do space telescopes have over telescopes used on Earth?

They are not affected by Earth’s atmosphere


They layer of the sun that radiates most of the light that reaches Earth is the…

photosphere


The outermost layer of the sun is called the…

corona


Which part of the sun lies directly above the visible “surface” of the sun?

chromosphere


The thin red rim seen around the sun during a total solar eclipse is called the…

chromosphere


The sun’s surface is made up mostly of…

hydrogen


Streams of electrons and protons that shoot out from the sun’s corona make up the solar…

wind


What are the most explosive events that occur on the sun?

solar flares


Sunspots appear dark because they are…

relatively cool


What effect do solar flares have on Earth?

auroras


The product of nuclear fusion is…

helium


The source of the sun’s energy is…

nuclear fusion


The sun can continue to exist in its present stable state for about another…

5.5 billion years


What type of radiation has a wavelength slightly longer than that of visible light?

infrared rays


What happens to the intensity of solar energy as latitude increases?

It decreases


Which region is located between 23.5° north and south of the equator?

Tropical zone


In polar areas, solar radiation strikes earths at a

Small angle


The rainshadow effect is associated with

Mountains


The Leeward side of the mountain is often

Dry


Increased altitude generally causes lower

Temperatures


How would the climate of a coastal city differ from that of the city at the same latitude located farther inland?

The coastal city would have cooler summers


The temperature of the body of water influences

The temperature of the air above it


Global winds move warm air toward the

Poles


Heat and moisture are distributed around earth by

Global winds


Low-pressure zones at the equator in sub polar regions cause

Cloud formation


What do plants release into the air during transpiration

Water vapor


Which of the following is NOT true of the relationship between vegetation and climate

Vegetation influences ocean currents


Which of the following is NOT a principal group in the Koppen system

West coast climate


Which climate type is associated with savannas

Tropical wet and dry


What factor distinguishes wet tropical climates from tropical wet and dry climates

Precipitation


Where are dry summer tropical climates found in the United States

California


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Marine West Coast climates

Strong winter rainfall maximum


Another name for a semi arid climate is

Steppe


And dry climates, rates of evaporation exceed

Rates of precipitation


What happens to air when it sinks

It compresses and warms


Which type of climate is characteristic of Antarctica

Polar


Which climate experiences seasonal periods of perpetual night

Polar


In general, how do highland climates compare to nearby areas at lower elevations

They’re cooler and wetter


Which of the following may cause long-term changes in climate

Changes in the shape of earths orbit


How does volcanic ash in earths atmosphere affect solar radiation

It increases the amount of solar radiation that is reflected into space


What phenomenon naturally warms earths lower atmosphere and surface

The greenhouse effect


Which of the following is NOT true of greenhouse gases

They are produced solely by human activities


What is the relationship between fossil fuels in the greenhouse effect

Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere


Which greenhouse gas is the most powerful absorber of radiation emitted by earth

Water vapor


During the 20th century, earths average surface temperature

Increased


Which of the following is an example of the human impact on climate changes

Global warming


Shoreline erosion and coastal flooding or two consequences of

A global rise in sea level


Which statement best explains why global warming may lead to an increase in the number and intensity of hurricanes

Ocean temperatures will increase


Which of the following is NOT a possible consequence of global warming

Reduction in secondary pollutants


Stellar distance are usually expressed in what units ?

Light years


What is the measurement of a star’s brightness called?

Magnitude


Which magnitude would be associated with the brightest star?

( -5)


What does the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram show the relationship between?

Temperature and absolute magnitude


List all of three types of nebula?

Emission Nebula, Reflection Nebula, Dark Nebula


About 90% of stars on the H-R diagram are what type of stars?

Main sequence stars


Which main sequence stars are the most massive?

Blue stars


Which main sequence stars are the least massive?

Red stars


What is another name for the interstellar matter that will eventually form a start?

Nebula


When is a star said to be born?

When nuclear fusion starts


Which force is most responsible for the formation of a star?

Gravity


In the Milky Way what is the most abundant gas in emission nebula ?

Hydrogen


Massive stars terminate in a brilliant explosion called?

Supernova


Which stars are composed of matter in which electrons have combined with protons?

Neutron stars


What happens to all stars regardless of their size?

Run out off fuel and collapse


What is the sun’s absolute magnitude?

5.0


Which main sequence stars are the brightest?

Blue main sequence star


In the course of extremely hot red giant nuclear reaction converts helium to what element?

Hydrogen


Before being engulfed matter that is pull into a black hole should become very hot an inmate what before electromagnetic radiation?

X-rays


When a main sequence stars have exhausted the fuel in its core what does it become?

Red giant


The Sun is what type of star?

Main sequence star


What will be the final stage in the sun’s life cycle?

A black dwarf (hypothetically)


What is it that light cannot escape the intense gravitational pull of?

Black hole


What is our galaxy called / named?

Milky Way


Where is our Sun located in the Milky Way?

Within one of the spiral arms


About 60% of all known galaxies are classified as what type?

Spiral galaxies


List the different types of galaxies

Irregular, spiral, elliptical


According to Hubble’s law galaxies are there retreating at a speed that is proportional to there?

Distance


What indicates that the universe is expanding?

Red shift of distant galaxies


Based on observation red shift in the spectral lines of distant galaxies astronomers concluded that the universe is doing what?

Expanding


What do the greater red shift in spectral of galaxies indicate?

Faster speeds


According to the Big Bang Theory when did the universe begin?

13.7 billion years ago


What evidence supports the Big Bang Theory?

Cosmic background radiation


Stars of which color have the highest surface tempeture?

Blue Stars


Stars of which color have the coolest surface temperature

Red Stars


What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?

CO2 – nitrogen


Which of the following terms best describes air

mixture


The form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule is called

ozone


What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?

troposphere


Most important weather phenomena occur in the

troposphere


Fifty percent of the gases that make up the atmosphere are found below

5.6 kilometers


The tropopause is ____.

the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere


When do the sun’s rays strike latitude 23.5S at an angle of 90 degrees?

December 21


When does the summer solstice occur in the Northern Hemisphere?

June 21


When does the autumnal equinox occur in the Southern Hemisphere?

March 21


On which date does the Antarctic Circle have 24 hours of daylight?

December 21


Which of the following is true about equinoxes?

Days and nights are equal in length everywhere.


All matter is composed of atoms or molecules that have energy of motion, also known as ____

kinetic energy


When air transfers energy to a cooler object, what happens to the air temperature?

It decreases.


When energy is transferred to air, what happens to the particles of air?

They move faster.


What causes heat, or the transfer of energy from one object to another?

differences in temperature


Which electromagnetic waves have the longest wavelengths?

radio


What process describes the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity?

conduction


Which process involves mass movement within a substance?

convection


Electromagnetic waves travel through space at a speed of ____.

300,000 kilometers per second


A metal spoon becomes hot after being left in a pan of boiling water. This is an example of ____.

conduction


The heating of the lower layer of the atmosphere from radiation absorbed by certain heat-absorbing gases is
called ____.

the greenhouse effect


On average, how much of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s outer atmosphere is reflected back into space?

30 percent


Earth receives energy from the sun through what method of heat transfer?

radiation


On average, how much of the sun’s energy is absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere and clouds, without reaching
Earth’s surface?

20 percent


Which of the following best describes the primary wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth’s surface?

longer than those emitted by the sun


Which of the following is associated with weak light rays that travel in different directions?

scattering


Which of the following is true?

a. Land heats more rapidly than water

b. Land reaches higher temperatures than water.

c. both a and b – Correct


Based on Figure 17-1, what is likely true of City A?

It is located on a leeward coast.


Based on Figure 17-1, what is likely true of City B?

a. Its temperature is strongly influenced by prevailing ocean winds.

b. It has cool summers and mild winters.


both a and b – Correct


Which of the following best describes temperature variations?

Variations are greater over land than over water.


Isotherms are lines that connect points of equal ____.

temperature


Which of the following best describes the general air temperature on a cloudy night?

higher than on a clear night


Many clouds have a high albedo and therefore tend to ____.

reflect sunlight


At night, clouds act as a blanket by ____.

absorbing outgoing radiation


The oldest features on the moon are the

lunar highlands


The youngest features on the moon are the

rayed craters


The maria lowlands are most likely

Large lava filled impact basins


The impact hypothesis proposes that the moon formed as a result of a collision between

Earth and a Mars-sized planetessimal, ejecting mantle material that accredit


The moon’s rotational rate is what percentage of its orbital rate around the Earth?

100% – they are the same


A sidereal month is

27.3 days


A syndonic month is

29.5 days


Mercury’s craters probably formed as a result of

Asteroid and meteorite impacts


The core of the moon is

Small, with little iron


The core of Mercury is

Very large and composed of iron


Evidence for the nature of Mercury’s core comes from

The planet’s unusually high overall density


Earth-based radar observations of Mercury were used to determine the planet’s

Rotation rate


Radar bright patched were observed at the north and south poles of Mercury, suggesting the presence of

H20 ice


Mercury’s sidereal rotation rate is

2/3 of its orbital rate


Similarities between the moon and Mercury include

The ancient, highly cratered surfaces


Place the layers in order, from the Earth’s center (1) to the Surface (5)

Correct Order

(1) solid core
(2) liquid core
(3) lower mantle
(4) asthesnosphere
(5) lithosphere


Oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere

All of the above


Earth’s magnetic field is generated by a dynamo effect in

The molten outer core


The age of Earth is approximately

4.57 billion years old


The oldest continental crust on Earth is approximately

3.9 billion years old


The oldest oceanic crust on Earth is approximately

180 million years old


All earthquakes originate in the Earth’s

Lithosphere


Heat transfer from a planet’s interior is most difficult

In areas of thick lithosphere


Mountain ranges, such as the Alps and the Himalayas, are formed at

Convergent boundaries


New oceanic crust on Earth formed at

Divergent boundaries (mid ocean ridges)


The albedo (reflectivity) of Earth in the visible spectrum is about

30%


The albedo (reflectivity) of Venus in the visible spectrum is about

70%


The orbital period of Venus about the Sun is approximately

229 days prograde


The sidereal rotation period of Venus about its axis is approximately

243 Earth days retrograde


Venus has few, if any, impact craters smaller than 3 km across. This is most likely due to

The thick atmosphere causing the smaller meteors to burn up before impact


Venus’ surface is hot due to

Infrared radiation from the surface can’t escape


Venus’ lowland plains are believed to be relatively young (500-600 million years old). Evidence for this is

Crater density is only about 15% of that found on lunar maria


Though they are similar in size, mass, and distance from the sun, Venus is much drier than Earth because

Water was broken up by ultraviolet light in the stratosphere


Mars has a distinctively reddish surface primarily because of

The presence of iron oxide


An extremely weak magnetic field has been measured on Mars. The relative weakness of the field can be explained by

the fact that Mars’ interior has mostly cooled


Evidence of liquid water on the surface in Mars’ past includes

Meandering drainage valleys and elongated flow features


Mars’ polar caps are composed of

Water ice


The atmosphere of Mars is dominated by

Carbon dioxide


Mars’ atmospheric density is approximately

1% of Earth’s atmosphere


The sidereal rotation period of Mars about its axis is

24.7 hours (prograde)

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