Diseases & Medical Terms – Nursing week 5
This week 5 nursing study is about medical terminology, including medical terms used for different diseases.
The effect of gonadotropin is to:
A. release cortisone.
B. increase urine output.
C. move calcium into the bone.
D. digest proteins.
E. stimulate the ovaries or testes. – correct
The adrenal gland is __ the kidney.
A. inferior to
B. on top of – correct
C. embedded in
D. posterior to
E. distal to
Hyperthyroidism, the disorder caused by excessive thyroid hormone production, is also called:
D. thyrotoxicosis. – correct
Where is the thymus gland located?
A. In the cranium.
B. In the throat.
C. In the groin.
D. In the mediastinum. – correct
E. In the abdomen.
Which of the following is NOT a gland in the endocrine system?
B. Somatotropin – correct
What condition is caused by an overproduction of growth hormone in children?
A. Gigantism – correct
The function of parathyroid hormone is to:
A. increase metabolic rate.
B. decreased metabolic rate.
C. decreased urine output.
D. increase calcium blood levels. – correct
E. decrease calcium blood levels.
The _ is the first organ affected by hypoglycemia.
D. brain – correct
Diabetes mellitus is caused by deficiency or ineffectiveness of:
D. insulin. – correct
The term that can be used to describe the location of the adrenal gland is:
B. suprarenal. – correct
Symptomatic hypoglycemia is sometimes called:
A. insulin shock. – correct
B. insulin resistance.
C. diabetic coma.
D. diabetic retinopathy.
E. thyroid storm.
There are usually parathyroid glands embedded in the .
A. 2; thymus
B. 4; thyroid gland – correct
C. 4; adrenal glands
D. 6; pancreas
E. 6; thyroid gland
A pituitary hormone that constricts blood vessels and decreases urine output is called:
C. vasopressin. – correct
A complication of diabetes causing sensory defects with numbness, tingling, and paresthesias in the fingers and toes is called:
A. diabetic retinopathy.
B. diabetic neuropathy. – correct
C. diabetic nephropathy.
D. diabetic musculopathy.
E. diabetic dermopathy.
A diabetic patient with paresthesia has:
A. discoloration of the skin in the lower legs.
B. abnormal sensations in the hands and feet. – correct
C. weakness in the muscles of the hands and feet.
D. swelling of the hands and feet.
E. intense itching of the hands and feet.
A cretin is a(n):
A. hormone secreted from the thymus gland.
B. tumor found on the adrenal gland.
C. condition of increased insulin secretion.
D. congenital heart defect.
E. child suffering from severe hypothyroidism. – correct
Which of the following substances is (are) used to suppress inflammation?
A. Anabolic steroids
B. Hydrocortisone – correct
C. Adrenocortical hormones
D. Thyroid stimulating hormone
Which of the following conditions is NOT a diabetic complication?
A. Aldosteronism – correct
B. Kidney disease
C. Heart disease
E. Vascular disease
The medical term that means pertaining to a disease of unknown cause?
E. Idiopathic – correct
A synonym for hydrocortisone is:
C. cortisol. – correct
A sign of Cushing syndrome is:
E. moon facies. – correct
Which of the following terms describes the excessive eating associated with hyperglycemia?
C. Polyphagia – correct
Which disease/disorder is treated with hormone replacement therapy?
A. Graves disease
B. Crohn disease
E. Addison disease – correct
Which of the following hormones is an agent that decreases urine production?
C. ADH – correct
Which of the following is NOT a function of a thyroid hormone?
A. Increase in the amount of oxygen that cells use
B. Control of metabolic rate
C. Stimulation of tissues to produce proteins
D. Secretion of leptin – correct
E. Moving calcium from blood to bone
Endocrine glands that occur in pairs, rather than singly, are:
A. pituitary and pineal.
B. thyroid and thymus.
C. adrenals and gonads. – correct
D. thymus and pancreas.
E. kidneys and pancreas.
Which of the following is a master gland that works together with the hypothalamus, often influencing the production of hormones in the other endocrine glands?
A. Pineal gland
B. Adrenal gland
C. Pituitary gland – correct
D. Thyroid gland
The word endocrine refers to a gland that:
A. releases digestive enzymes.
B. produces sweat.
C. produces an external secretion.
D. produces an internal secretion. – correct
E. regulates heart rhythm.
Which of the following is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract?
Pineal refers to a(n):
D. gland. – correct
Which of the following words means a chemical formed in one tissue or organ to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ?
A. Hormone – correct
Which of the following is the true statement about the pineal gland?
A. The pineal gland is in the integumentary system.
B. The pineal gland secretes serotonin and converts it to melatonin. – correct
C. The pineal gland controls the gonads.
D. The pineal gland is located above the oral palate.
E. The pineal gland is anterior to the hypothalamus.
The medical term for an enlargement of the thyroid gland is:
A. hashimoto disease.
D. goiter. – correct
Which of the following is a pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk?
E. Prolactin – correct
The pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete cortisone is:
A. corticotropin. – correct
All of the following are areas of routine treatment of diabetes EXCEPT:
B. routine physician visits.
C. pancreatectomy. – correct
Tetany is defined as:
A. enlargement of bones.
B. painful muscle spasms. – correct
C. protrusion of the eyeball.
D. enlargement of the thyroid gland.
E. excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Addison disease is caused by:
A. adrenal gland insufficiency. – correct
B. adrenal cortical hyperfunction.
C. adrenal hypersecretion.
Which gland secretes the hormone melatonin?
B. Pineal – correct
The basic principle of diabetes treatment is to avoid:
A. risk of infection.
B. too many calories.
C. abnormal blood sugar levels. – correct
D. not getting enough sleep.
Which of the following hormones is normally secreted in response to hyperglycemia?
C. Insulin – correct
Androgens and estrogens are _ hormones produced by the adrenal ____.
A. medullary; apex
B. metabolic; medulla
C. sex; cortex – correct
D. neurotransmitter; medulla
E. mineral; lumen
A. Addison disease.
B. Cushing syndrome. – correct
C. Hodgkin disease.
D. celiac disease.
E. Crohn disease.
The medical term metabolic acidosis is associated with which condition?
D. DKA – correct
A chemical formed in uncontrolled diabetes is:
C. ketone. – correct
Of the following words, which one has a prefix meaning highest point or extremity?
C. Acromegaly – correct
The abbreviation for a hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland is
D. TSH – correct
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is used to treat which of the following conditions?
A. Hypothyroidism – correct
B. Graves disease
The physical therapist was unable to ambulate the patient because the patient was extremely drowsy. The physical therapist would document the patient’s condition as:
A. lethargic. – correct
The pancreas can be described as both an endocrine gland and a(n) _ gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts.
E. exocrine – correct
Which of the following drugs are used to reduce inflammation?
C. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories – correct
Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis is correctly spelled as:
D. pyelonephritis. – correct
The “C” in the abbreviations CKD and CRF stands for:
B. chronic. – correct
Which of the following is not a diagnostic test for the urinary system?
E. LUL – correct
Ketoacidosis could be a complication resulting from what other clinical problem?
D. Diabetes – correct
What is another name for an artificial kidney machine?
C. Dialyzer – correct
What initiates peristalsis of the ureters?
A. Presence of urine in the bladder
B. Involuntary sphincter constriction
C. Muscle contracture
D. A hormone
E. Presence of urine in the renal pelvis – correct
In what part of the urinary system do calculi begin to form?
C. Pelvis of the kidney – correct
E. Nephron of the kidney
What does the root of the word nephrectomy refer to?
A. Removal of
C. Kidney – correct
What does the suffix in the word nitrogenous mean?
B. One who studies
D. Pertaining to – correct
What does the root of the word renal mean?
A. Pertaining to
B. Kidney – correct
E. Render in balanced
Which of the following diseases would an urologist treat?
A. Polycystic kidney disease
B. Chronic glomerulonephritis
D. Renal carcinoma
E. Urinary bladder cancer – correct
What does the suffix in the term nephroscopy mean?
C. To view – correct
E. To discover
In microscopic hematuria, what does the urine look like?
A. Bright red
B. Yellow – correct
D. Full of pus
Which of the following terms has a prefix that means between?
What is the name of the test in which contrast material is used to assess the blood flow to the kidney?
A. Ultrasound imaging
C. Renal angiogram – correct
D. Retrograde pyelogram
In the term nephroblastoma, what does the word element -blast refer to?
C. To eliminate
D. To remove
E. Embryonic – correct
A method to break up a renal calculus by the application of sound waves to the outside of the body is:
D. ESWL – correct
Which of the following is NOT a method of urine collection?
B. Early morning
D. Venipuncture – correct
A patient is scheduled to have a left nephrostomy. This means that the patient will have:
A. his left kidney removed.
B. an incision made into the kidney to remove a stone.
C. a new opening in the kidney. – correct
D. his left kidney fixed in place.
E. a visual examination of the kidney.
F. a kidney transplant.
Which of the following is an agent that increases urine output?
C. Diuretic – correct
Renal failure can be caused by all of the following EXCEPT:
B. severe burns.
C. dialysis. – correct
Which of the following conditions results from excessive amounts of nitrogenous waste products in the blood?
A. Interstitial nephritis
B. Polycystic kidney disease
C. Chronic renal failure
E. Uremia – correct
Which of the following diagnostic tests is used to examine the renal pelvis and ureters?
B. Pyelogram – correct
Which statement best defines the medical term meatus?
A. The external opening of a passage. – correct
B. The act of voiding.
C. A band of muscle that encircles an opening.
D. Difficulty or pain on urination.
E. It is located above the symphysis pubis.
What is the correct medical term for a spillover of sugar into the urine?
B. Glycosuria – correct
What is the most correct statement about the kidney’s hilum?
A. It is an opening outside the body.
B. It provides muscle control for voiding.
C. It is an opening for nerves and vessels going to and from the kidney. – correct
D. It is a tube that connects each kidney to the pancreas.
E. It is an opening for nerves and blood vessels.
Involuntary micturition during sleep in older children or adults is called:
B. enuresis. – correct
Odor of normal urine has a slight “nutty” scent. What gives urine a fruity odor?
B. Ketosis – correct
Which two terms from urinary vocabulary have the same meaning?
A. Reflex and sphincter
B. Meatus and enuresis
C. Suprapubic and suprarenal
D. Void and micturate – correct
E. Incontinence and retention
Severe burns, trauma, septicemia, toxins like excess alcohol and mercury can sometimes cause:
A. chronic renal failure.
C. acute renal failure. – correct
E. polycystic kidney disease.
Waste products are filtered from the blood by the:
B. amino acids.
C. nephrons in the kidney cortex. – correct
D. platelets in the blood.
What does pH measure?
A. How acidic or alkaline urine is – correct
B. The amount of sugar in the urine
C. The amount of blood in the urine
D. The amount of protein in the urine
E. How much water is in the urine
Which of the following terms from the urinary system means scanty production of urine?
C. Oliguria – correct
Which of the following medical terms signifies the presence of a stone, or calculus?
D. Nephrolithiasis – correct
What is urinary incontinence?
A. Involuntary discharge of feces
B. Reflux of urine back up the ureters
C. Abnormal, involuntary holding of urine in the bladder
D. Loss of bladder control – correct
E. Lack of peristalsis through the urinary tract
The plural of the term cortex is:
A. cortices. – correct
What is the medical term for a plexus of capillaries in the nephron?
B. Brachial plexus
C. Glomerulus – correct
What is the correct spelling of the term that means inflammation of the canal leading from the bladder to the outside?
C. Urethritis – correct
What is the correct spelling of the plural form of calculus?
B. Calculi – correct
Choose the correctly spelled medical term.
C. Micturition – correct
The type of incontinence that results because of sudden pressure on the lower stomach muscles is:
A. urge incontinence.
B. stress incontinence. – correct
C. functional incontinence.
D. overflow incontinence.
E. situational incontinence.
What is the primary symptom of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder?
D. Hematuria – correct
Which of the terms is spelled correctly?
B. Void – correct
The medical term to describe an abnormal, involuntary holding of urine in the bladder is
A. Overflow incontinence
C. Stress incontinence
D. Functional incontinence
E. Urinary retention – correct
The word element that means process is:
C. -ation. – correct
The word element that means kidney is:
D. ren-. – correct
The word element that means create is:
C. -gen. – correct
A specialist in treating disorders of the urinary tract is called a:
C. urologist. – correct
Which of the following words is derived from the Greek for urinary canal?
A. Ureter – correct
How many accessory glands are there in the male reproductive system?
A. Five – correct
Which medical term is spelled incorrectly?
A. Kryptorchism – correct
In the term hydrocele, the root means:
A. water. – correct
In the medical condition oligohydramnios, what does the prefix mean?
B. Scanty, too little – correct
D. Many, excessive
What does the abbreviation BSE stand for?
A. Breast cancer gene
B. Breast surface exposure
C. Breast self-exploration
D. Breast cancer
E. Breast self-examination – correct
Which of the following is a condition in which the foreskin becomes tightened and cannot be retracted over the glans?
E. Phimosis – correct
The prefix in the word nocturia means:
C. night. – correct
Where must fertilization occur in the fallopian tube?
A. Just before entering the uterus.
B. The last third of the fallopian tube.
C. The distal third of the fallopian tube. – correct
D. Immediately as the egg enters the fallopian tube.
E. At the entrance of the uterus.
Gestational classification is done on all neonates. A neonate who is born before 37 weeks gestation is considered:
A. premature. – correct
When an egg is released from the ovary, how long does it take to reach the uterus?
A. 48 hours
B. 12 hours
C. 24 hours
D. 72 hours – correct
E. 36 hours
A nonlactating breast contains mainly _ and connective tissue.
A. adipose – correct
D. smooth muscle
E. mammary glands
What part of the male reproductive system empties sperm and semen into the urethra?
A. The ductus deferens
B. The epididymis
C. The ejaculatory duct – correct
D. Seminal vesicles
E. The bulbourethral glands
Which of the following words means pertaining to a sheath?
b. Vaginalis – correct
Identify one term associated with the male reproductive accessory glands:
A. seminal vesicles. – correct
Priapism can be caused by drugs, , and .
A. blood clots; spinal cord injury – correct
B. stress; antibiotics
C. viruses; bacteria
D. stress; heat
E inflammation; infection
What is the plural form of the medical term meaning a weblike network of joined nerves?
D. Plexuses – correct
What is another name for the birth canal?
B. Vagina – correct
The abbreviation PPH stands for:
A. postpartum hemorrhage. – correct
B. postpartum hyperpsychosis.
C. placenta previa hysteresis.
D. postpartum hernia.
E. postpartum hyperemesis.
The viral cause of orchitis is:
A. mumps. – correct
The combining form in the term blastocyst means:
B. young one.
D. germ cell. – correct
E. make fruitful.
In the term postpartum, what does the prefix mean?
A. In the middle
C. After – correct
Which of the following is a laboratory test?
A. PSA – correct
The Greek meaning of amnion is:
A. young one.
B. membrane around fetus. – correct
C. something received.
_ and chorionic villus sampling are performed to test for chromosomal abnormalities and genetic birth defects.
D. Amniocentesis – correct
Because their lungs are not mature, premature infants can develop respiratory distress syndrome, also known as hyaline membrane disease. This problem occurs because the infant’s lungs are lacking:
A. carbon dioxide.
D. amniotic fluid.
E. surfactant. – correct
Which of the following is a STD?
C. Chlamydia – correct
What is the correct spelling of the term that refers to the muscular wall of the uterus?
C. Myometrium – correct
The Latin term conception means:
A. a shining forth.
B. make fruitful.
C. occurring before the expected time.
D. something received. – correct
E. membrane around fetus.
At the very end of pregnancy and after, what is the first secretion from the breasts called?
E. Colostrum – correct
In the word kernicterus, what does the root icterus mean?
B. Jaundice – correct
Foreskin is another name for the:
C. prepuce. – correct
_ is the widening of the cervical canal to the same diameter as the baby’s head.
B. Dilation – correct
Which of the following is the male sex hormone?
C. Testosterone – correct
In the term primipara, what does the prefix mean?
A. First – correct
E. More than two
In the term mastalgia, the suffix means:
E. pain. – correct
The word vulva refers to the:
A. internal female organs.
C. organs of the female reproductive system.
E. female external genitalia. – correct
Gonad is another term for:
A. male reproductive system.
B. sexual drive.
C. primary sex organs. – correct
D. secondary sex organs.
E. accessory sex organs.
An infection of the glans and foreskin with bacteria or yeast is called:
C. balanitis. – correct
The first breast secretion at the end of pregnancy is colostrum, a Latin term for:
C. pertaining to.
D. foremilk. – correct
Which of the following words means inflammation of the epididymis and testicle?
D. Epididymo-orchitis – correct
Inflammation of the breast can occur during breastfeeding if the nipple is cracked or traumatized. This condition is known as:
A. mastitis. – correct
D. paget disease.
E. fibrocystic breast disease.
The purpose of areolar glands is to prevent chapping and cracking during breastfeeding. These glands are _ glands.
A. sebaceous – correct
Which medical term can be applied to both male and female reproductive organs?
B. Seminal vesicle
D. Gonad – correct
During a routine physical examination, a 65 year-old male patient tells the physician, I get up several times during the night to urinate. Based on this symptom, the physician suspects that the patient may have:
A. a sexually transmitted disease.
B. a urinary tract infection.
C. benign prostatic hyperplasia. – correct
D. diabetes mellitus.
E. prostate cancer.
The testicular artery in the twisted cord becomes blocked, and the blood supply to the testis is cut off is a condition termed:
C. torsion. – correct
Which of the following conditions involves a persistent, painful erection that will not subside on its own?
A. Priapism – correct
Which surgical procedure reverses the effects of a vasectomy?
A. Vasovasostomy – correct
Which of the following is a condition in which the retracted foreskin cannot be pulled forward to cover the glans?
E. Paraphimosis – correct
Which of the following terms contains the root meaning to bring forth?
D. Primipara – correct
Ejaculation occurs when the system stimulates the smooth muscle of the ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and the prostate gland to .
A. sympathetic nervous; contract – correct
B. parasympathetic nervous; stricture
C. sympathetic nervous; spasm
D. central nervous; relax
E. parasympathetic nervous; contract