Antacids – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

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Chapter 50: Acid-Controlling Test, Antacids, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Acid-Controlling Test, Antacids, Hyperacidity, Neutralizes Gastric Acid, Simethicone, Nurse, Patient, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


The nurse will teach patients that antacids are effective in the treatment of hyperacidity based on what mechanism of action?

Neutralizes gastric acid

Decreases duodenal pH

Increases stomach motility

Decreases gastric pH

Antacids work by neutralizing gastric acid, which would cause an increase in pH. They do not affect gastric motility.


The nurse would teach a patient prescribed simethicone to avoid what substance?

Carbonated beverages

Over-the-counter antacids

Histamine2-receptor antagonists

Milk and dairy products

Simethicone is used to decrease gas and belching, both of which can be aggravated or caused by ingesting carbonated beverages. It may be given in combination with other medications used to decrease acidity.


The nurse will question an order for misoprostol in what patient?

A 45-year-old woman with GERD

A 21-year-old man with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome

A 32-year-old pregnant woman with a urinary tract infection

A 64-year-old man with hypertension

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin E analogue and is believed to inhibit gastric acid secretion and protect the gastric mucosa from injury by enhancing the local production of mucus. However, it is also an abortifacient and therefore is contraindicated in pregnancy. The drug may be useful in treating patients with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (a hypersecretory syndrome) and GERD. Hypertension is not a contraindication for its use.


The nurse will monitor a patient taking an aluminum-containing antacid, such as aluminum hydroxide, for what adverse effect?

Constipation

Fluid retention

Diarrhea

Gastrointestinal (GI) upset

Aluminum- and calcium-containing antacids cause constipation, magnesium-containing antacids cause diarrhea, and sodium-containing antacids cause sodium and fluid retention.


How does sucralfate achieve a therapeutic effect?

By inhibiting the production of gastric acid secretion

By forming a protective barrier over the gastric mucosa

By neutralizing gastric acid

By enhancing gastric absorption

Sucralfate has a local effect only on the gastric mucosa. It forms a protective barrier that can be thought of as a liquid bandage in the stomach. This liquid bandage adheres to the gastric lining, protecting against adverse effects related to gastric acid. It also stimulates healing of any ulcerated areas of the gastric mucosa.