Antibiotic – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

Twitter - Quiz Tutors
Facebook - Quiz Tutors

Chapter 38: Antibiotics Part 1 Test, Antibiotic, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Antibiotics, Heart Condition, Antibiotic Therapy, Prophylactic, Patient, Allergic, Nurse, Penicillin, Cefazolin Sodium, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


A patient with a known heart condition is prescribed an antibiotic before a dental procedure. What type of antibiotic therapy is this considered?

Supportive

Empiric

Prophylactic

Definitive

Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is used to prevent infections in individuals who are at high risk of development of an infection during or after a procedure. The antibiotics are given before the procedure for prophylactic treatment.


A patient who is allergic to penicillin is at increased risk for an allergy to which drug?

Demeclocycline

Gentamicin

Cefazolin sodium

Erythromycin

Patients who are allergic to penicillins have an increased risk of allergy to other beta-lactam antibiotics. The incidence of cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillins is reported to be between 1% and 4%.


What is assessment data would be collected for a patient prior to administering prescribed antibiotic therapy?

Allergies

History of seizures

Cardiac dysrhythmias

Immunizations

Antibiotic allergy is one of the most common drug allergies. An allergic reaction that occurs after administration of an antibiotic has the potential to cause severe anaphylaxis and possible death.


Bacterial resistance to antibiotics can occur with which situations? (Select all that apply.)

Antibiotics that are prescribed according to culture and sensitivity reports

Microorganisms arriving from foreign countries and overseas ports

Patients stop taking an antibiotic when they feel better.

Taking an antibiotic and an antiviral medication at the same time

Antibiotics that are prescribed to treat a viral infection

Not completing a full course of antibiotic therapy can allow bacteria that are not killed but have been exposed to the medicine to adapt their physiology to become resistant to that antibiotic. Administering antibio to treat viral infections is not effective and may expose small amounts of bacteria that may be present to the medicine and therefore risk the development of resistance.


In an effort to prevent superinfections of the GI tract such as Clostridium difficile, the nurse will instruct patients to eat which foods?

Multigrain wheat bread

Low-fat meats such as chicken and pork

Raw fruits and vegetables

Cultured dairy products such as yogurt

The natural flora in the GI tract may be killed off by antibiotics, leaving other bacteria such as C. difficile to overgrow. This process may be prevented through consumption of probiotics (e.g., yogurt, buttermilk, kefir).


When administering a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and a penicillin drug together, the displacement of the penicillin antibiotic from the protein-binding sites will result in which effect?

No change in free drug in blood

Increased free drug in blood

Absence of free drug in the blood

Decreased free drug in blood

Drugs that are not bound to protein are free and thus active to exert their therapeutic (or toxic, if too much free) effect.


A patient prescribed azithromycin expresses concern regarding GI upset that was experienced when previously prescribed an erythromycin antibiotic. What is the nurse’s best response?

“I will call the health care provider and request a different antibiotic.”

“Take an over-the-counter antiemetic to lessen the nausea.”

“This drug is like erythromycin with less gastrointestinal adverse effects.”

“Stop taking the drug if you experience heartburn and diarrhea.”

Azithromycin is a newer macrolide antibiotic. It has a longer duration of action, as well as fewer and less severe GI adverse effects than erythromycin.