Anticholinergic Drug – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical

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Chapter 52: Anti-Emetic Test, Anticholinergic Drug, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Anti-Emetic Test, Chapter 52, Anticholinergic Drug, Scopolamine, Glaucoma, Nurse, Nausea, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


Before administering the anticholinergic drug scopolamine the nurse would assess the patient for a history of what condition?

Hyperthyroidism

Glaucoma

Gastroenteritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Anticholinergic drugs are contraindicated in patients with glaucoma. These drugs can cause pupillary dilation, which can obstruct the flow of aqueous humor and increase intraocular pressure.


A patient receiving an anticholinergic drug to treat nausea and vomiting would be taught to expect what adverse effect?

Dry mouth

Diarrhea

Bradycardia

Lacrimation

Anticholinergic drugs block the parasympathetic nervous system, which causes the body to “rest and digest.” Blocking of these effects leads to constipation, urinary retention, and decreased secretions (dry mouth).


Antidopaminergic drugs are useful to treat not only nausea and vomiting but also what other conditions? (Select all that apply.)

Schizophrenia

Intractable hiccups

Bone marrow suppression

Seizures

Anxiety

Antidopaminergic drugs are used to treat psychotic disorders (mania, schizophrenia, anxiety), intractable hiccups, nausea, and vomiting.


When planning to administer metoclopramide the nurse is aware that this drug must be given in regards to what fluid or food consideration?

Take 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime.

Take with 8 oz of orange or apple juice.

Give with a full glass of water in the morning.

Give with food to decrease GI upset.

Metoclopramide should be administered 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime. Administering the medication before meals allows time for onset to increase GI motility before food ingestion, thus decreasing stomach distention and resulting nausea and vomiting.


The nurse plans to administer 50 mg of diphenhydramine intravenously. How will the nurse administer this medication?

Undiluted over 1 minute

Diluted in 50 mL normal saline over 30 minutes

Undiluted over 2 minutes

Diluted in 100 mL D5W over 20 minutes

Diphenhydramine should be administered undiluted at a rate of 25 mg/min.


A patient who has AIDS has lost weight and is easily fatigued because of his malnourished state. The nurse anticipates an order for which antinausea drug to stimulate his appetite?

Ondansetron (Zofran), a serotonin blocker

Metoclopramide (Reglan), a prokinetic drug

Dronabinol (Marinol), a tetrahydrocannabinoid

Aprepitant (Emend), a substance P/NK1 receptor antagonist

Dronabinol is used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, generally as a second-line drug after treatment with other antiemetics has failed. It is also used to stimulate appetite and weight gain in patients with AIDS and in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The drugs in the other options are used to reduce or prevent nausea and vomiting but are not used to stimulate appetite.