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United States & The World – Ancient History

These chapters discuss United States and the world ancient history.


The region that is now Mexico, Central America, and the western coast of South America

American Indian culture

-Developed over many centuries
-The first American Indians originated from Asia
-Agriculture changed some Indian culture from a nomadic existence to farming communities

North American Indians

-The Hopewell people were skilled farmers and flourished in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys (200 B.C.-A.D. 400)
-Mississippian culture developed in A.D. 800 and built large religious mound structures
-The Anasazi culture (A.D. 800-1300) developed in the Southwest; the Anansazi were skilled builders (Mesa Verde cliff houses) and sophisticated farmers
-The Pueblo Indians inhabited the Southwest after the Anasazi and built extensive adobe cities

Early cultures in Mesoamerica

-The Olmec
-The Mayas
-The Aztecs
-The Incas

The Olmec

-1200-400 B.C.
-South-central Mexico
-Developed one of the first civilizations in Mesoamerica
-Developed an agricultural community
-Developed the first calendar in America
-Noted artwork in many media (jade, clay, basalt, and greenstone)
-Monumental sculpture (colossal heads)

The Mayas

-A.D. 250-900
-Yucatan peninsula
-Achieved a complex civilization
-Maya cities were trade and religious centers
-The Mayas excelled in many fields, including mathematics, science, astronomy, and engineering (pyramid building)
-Only known written language of pre-Columbian Americas
-Sophisticated art
-Monumental architecture (Tikal, Palenque)

The Aztecs

-A.D. 1325-1521
-Central Mexico
-Conquered much of central Mexico
-The Toltecs preceded the Aztecs
-The Aztecs built a great city (Tenochtitlan) and ruled an empire
-Religion and war dominated Aztec life
-Rich mythological and religious traditions
-Architecturally accomplished (city planning, Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan, temples and palaces)
-Artistically advanced

The Incas

-A.D. 1200-1533
-Northwest coastal region and inland region of South America (Peru)
-Controlled a vast empire in South America
-The Tiahuanaco culture developed in the Andes Mountains and the Incas unified an extensive empire
-The Incas developed a sophisticated record-keeping system and were highly skilled craftsmen
-Engineering/architecture (Machu Picchu, stone construction without mortar, extensive road system linking empire together)
-Art (gold and silver working, ceramics, textiles)

Impact of Spanish Exploration and Conquest on Indigenous People of the Americas

-Disease devastated native populations
—Smallpox, measles, typhus
—From Mexico, spread into the American southwest and southward toward the Andes
—From 1520-1620, 20 million dead
—Conquest aided by weakening of native forces
-Aztecs conquered by Cortes in 1521
-Inca Empire conquered by Pizarro in 1513
-Mass transfer of wealth (gold and silver) from the Americas to Spain
-End of political and economic independence—organized for labor within the Spanish economic system
-Loss of native culture
-Conversion to Christianity

India under Muslim rule

-Muslims controlled India for centuries
-Muslim invaders came into India in the 11th and 12th centuries and created kingdoms in the north
-The Delhi Sultanate was the most powerful (1206-1526)


-Considered one of the world’s major religions and has influenced religious, political, and social thought for over 4,000 years
-Originated in the Indus River Valley of India and primarily spread to and throughout southeast Asia
-Four key beliefs:
–That each person is born into a caste or social group
–Reincarnation: after death all people will be reborn in either human or animal form; nothing truly dies and the spirit in death passes from one living thing to another
–The cow is considered sacred
–A belief in polytheism (multiple deities): the three main gods are Brahma, the Creator; Vishnu, the Preserver; and Shiva, the Destroyer


-Lived and worked under Muslim rule
-Most Hindus were self-sufficient farmers
-The caste system dominated Hindu life

The caste system

-Originated in India (1500 B.C.) as part of the teachings of Hinduism
-Divided people into four distinct and inflexible social groups: priests and teachers; rulers and warriors; merchants and artisans; and peasants and servants (the lowest caste)
-People who did not belong to any group were the untouchables
-Members of one caste could not marry or even eat with members of another caste
-No amount of success would allow a person to move from one caste to another
-Outlawed in 1950

Chinese civilization under the Sungs

-A.D. 960-1279
-The Chinese Empire lost much territory after the fall of the Tang rulers
-Advances in education, art, and science contributed to an improved way of life

The importance of city life in the Sung Empire

-Foreign trade enabled populations to grow in cities and to become sophisticated
-The family was the focus of Chinese life
-Women had lower status than men

Mongul rule in China

-Genghis Khan united nomadic peoples and conquered China
-Kublai Khan became emperor of China
-Marco Polo, the Italian explorer, opened the door to trade with China and described the Mongol Empire.

The Ming and Manchu Dynasties

-The Ming (native Chinese) ousted the Mongols
-Ming (1368-1644) rulers limited contact with the West
-The Manchus (1644-1911) overran China and followed a policy of isolationism, weakening China


-His teachings influenced Chinese culture
-Wanted to improve society
-Taught that certain virtues are guidelines to happy life

Japan’s geography

-Influenced its history
-Japanese culture reflects a reverence for nature
-Mountains, forests, and coastal areas determined cultural growth

Early Japanese civilization

-Borrowed from China
-Archaeology has revealed Japan’s ancient past
-Japanese culture developed during the Heian Era (794-1156)
-Poetic form such as the Haiku developed, and literature spread

Development of feudalism and a samurai warrior-class

-There were three periods of feudal government—Kamakura, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa
-The Shogun was the actual ruler; the emperors were figureheads
-Nobles struggled for power during the Ashikaga Shogunate (1394-1573)
-The arts flourished
-Central government grew strong during the Tokugawa Era (1603-1868)
-The old Samurai class and feudal way of life declined, resulting in major political and social changes

The accomplishments of the early Japanese

-The Japanese developed their own language and sophisticated system of writing
-They developed literature and poetry
-They developed the Shinto religion
-They placed great emphasis on a love of nature, beauty, and good manners

The Near East

Comprised the Tigris & Euphrates Valley, the Fertile Crescent, and The Nile Valley. They had the first system of independent states and writing. Architectural achievements are the ziggurat & pyramid. the first codification of law. the first lasting monotheism.

The Summarians

creators of the Mesopotamia civiliztion. Large scale irrigation projects, advanced system of mathematics and the invention of the wheel.


a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians and was the center of community life.

The Babalonians

The Hitties, the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and the Phoenicians. Centralized Government and advancements in algebra and geometry.

The Code of Hammurabi

a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. Many of the punishments were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system

The Hittites

2000-1200 B.C. conquered much of Asia Minor & northern Mesopotamia; a major contribution included the invention of iron smelting, which revolutionized warfare.

The Assyrians

created an empire based on military superiority, conquest, and terrorism (911-550 B.C.) -Military techniques included siege warfare, intimidation, and the use of iron weapons. Created a centralized government, a postal service, an extensive library, and a system of highways.

The Chaldeans

Established the new Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar (605-538 B.C.)-Conquered Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine Developed astrology, astronomy, advanced government bureaucracy, and architectural achievements such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

The Persians

-Attempted to unify the entire Near East under one rule (500s B.C.)
-Established an international government
-Zoroastrianism, an ethical religion based on concepts of good and evil
-Failed to conquer the Greeks; Persia was eventually conquered by Alexander the Great (334-331 B.C.)

The Phoenicians

-Became the first explorers, traders, and colonizers of the ancient world; their civilization reached its peak in 1000 B.C.
-Greatest seafaring civilization in the ancient world
-Developed extensive trade networks throughout the Mediterranean and set up distant trade networks and trading colonies such as Tyre and Sidon
-Invented the first true alphabet
-Dominated the Mediterranean commerce and exported manufactured glass and purple dye (royal purple)

The Lydians

-Occupied western Asia Minor (500s B.C.)
-Their culture reached its zenith under King Croesus (Golden King)
-Were responsible for the first coinage of money

The Israelites

-Established the first lasting monotheism
-Saul established the first kingdom in Palestine (c. 1030-1010 B.C.)
-After the death of Solomon (922 B.C.), the Hebrews were divided into two kingdoms (Israel and Judah)
-Disunity and conquest resulted in the destruction of Israel (722 B.C.) and Judah (586 B.C.)
-The revolt of the Israelites against Rome resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) and the forced dispersal of the Jews from Palestine (Jewish Diaspora, c. A.D. 132-135)

The Egyptians

establishe a civiliztion in the Nile Valley.

Egyptian History

Old Kingdom (massive pyramids)
Middle kingdom
New kingdom (gets agressive)

Egyptian Religion

They were polytheistic worshiping over 2,000 gods and goddesses. They believed in the afterlife and that they would be judged for their life. They had sacred burials. Ruled by Pharoahs.


an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

The Nile

River that provided for the needs of Ancient Egyptians and made their great civilization possible. Agriculture was the bases of the Egyptian Society.


a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula


a center for civilizations which flourished in the 2nd and 3rd millenniums BC

Minoan Civilization

An advanced civilization that developed on the island of Crete around 2500 BCE based its prosperity

Mycenaean Civilization

A more militaristic civilization then Minoans, they traded and raided, turning on their Minoan teachers, helping to destroy Crete.


conquered the Mycenaeans, illiterate, cause the Dark Age of violence and instability


area along the central west coast of Asia Minor colonized by settlers from mainland Greece from about 1000 BC. Ionian Greeks, including Homer, played a central role in the early development of Greek history and literature following the Dark Ages. Birthplace for the Hellenic Civilizations.


Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.

The Age of Pericles(460 BC-429 BC)

This was the peak of the strength of the cultural and military power of Athens. During this time period there are many philosophers, including Socrates and Plato. This is also the time of the drama and many new advances in science, including Pythagoras, Democritus and Hippocrates. This is also when the Parthenon was built.


Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts. Developed a totalitarian and militaristic state dependent on slave labor.


a government in which power is in the hands of a few people–especially one in which rule is based upon wealth.

The Pelponnesian War

Athens vs Sparta, Sparta won but both were devastated unable to unite Greed city-states.

Greek Individualism

a catalyst in the collapse of the Greek city-state alliance.

Alexandar the Great

The conqueror who united the peoples of Greece, Egypt, Persia and Indus River Valley into an empire by conquering them.

Contributions of the Greeks

Democracy, Drama, Art, Architecture, Philosophy, Sculpting, Performing Arts, Philosphical Schools, Scientific Method.

The Roman Government

Constituted of a mixed government including consuls, a senate, tribune, assembly of the tribes, …

Roman Society

Was divided into the patricians (propertied class), plebeians (main body of Roman citizens), and slaves.

The Roman Empire

Roman expansion resulted in a world republic. Emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranian.


Elected consul of rome in 59 bc. Genius with military strategy. Governed as an absolute ruler. Was assassinated in the senate chamber.


First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar’s grand-nephew.

Roman Military Strategy

Divide and conquer, attack one enemy at a time, always ally with the weak power against the strong, then conquer both afterwards. Give conquered people a stake/citizenship in the empire, respect local religions and traditions. Demand loyalty and taxes, rebellion in any form is ruthlessly suppressed

The Fall of Rome

Continuous barbaric invasion. Internal factors included political instability, decreasing farm production, inflation, excessive taxation, and the decline of the military. The rise of Christianity divided the Empire.

Roman Contributions

Roman laws, justice system, court system; language(Latin); Pax Roman a long period of peace that enabled free travel and trade Building Construction, engineering and road construction. architecture, literature, art, sculpture and the humanites.

The Rise of Christianity

Began with the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It emphasized the Holy Bible as the word of God.

Paul the Apostle

The Christian name for Saul who had been a persecutor of Christians before conversion., Was responsible for the spread of Christian theology & the resulting response from the Roman Empire.

St. Augustine

The first great Christian philosopher. He was a sinner and did not believe but eventually was converted and he wrote CIty of God as well as Confession, he is also responsible for the doctrine of Original Sin

Reasons for the Spread of Christianity

Individual conviction of ones belief, The effeciency and organization of the the early church, Doctrines that stressed equality and immorality. The establishment of the Pope.


Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)


a city established as the new eastern capital of the roman empire by the emperor constantine in a.d. 330 that is now called istanbul

Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman empire after the fall of Rome.

Byzantine Empire Success

Domination of teh commercial trade routes controlled by Constintanople and a monopoly on the silk trade. Excellant use of diplonmacy to avoid invasions. Geographically distant from the tribes who sacked Rome. Codification of Roman Law. A forstress city with excellent defensible borders.

Byzantine Empire Decline

It’s geographic proximity to the Arabs, Slave, and Turks all of whom were becoming more powerful. The loss of commercial dominace over the Italians. Reliogious contraversy with west and a split with the Roman Catholic Church. The sack of the fourth crusade. The fall of Constantinople

Achievements of the Byzantine Empire

Greek language and cultural accomplishments preserved. Center for world trade and exchange of culture. It spread civilization to all of eastern Europe. It preserved the Eastern Church which converted Slavic people to Christianity. Its economic strength was based on the stability of its money economy. New focus for art; glorification of Christianity.

The Muslim Empire

the rise of Islam


Te monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran


The Founder of Islam. Muslims believe that Mohammad was God’s last Prophet and that he received the word of God from the angel Gabriel.

Arab Caliphs

political leaders after the death of Muhammad

Arab Conquests

wars which, in the century after the death of Muhammed in 632, created an empire stretching from Spain to the Indus Valley.


Overthrew the Umayyad but one escaped


Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam


a new group of nomads that drove the tang armies out of central Asia and took control of the silk roads. because of this chinas economy was damaged


dominateTurkish group control caliphate


A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.

The Ottoman Empire

Took over Turkey from the Byzantine Empire and strived to expand its borders into Eastern Europe, mainly fighting the Holy Roman Empire and its various princes throughout the Middle Ages. Constanople the center. Over time it started to shrink and grow weaker, it was dismantled after WWI.

Islamic Civilization

a warlike monotheistic civilization that spread rapidly throughout the Middle East and were constantly at war. They are known for their brilliant arabesques and gorgeous craftsmanship

Islamic Government and Religion

Religious pilgramages Improved farming methods, trade and commerce led to a high standard of living, Military expansion.

The Early Middle Ages

The collapse of Rome and sweeping advances of Germanic and Viking raiders, Europe entered a time of chaotic political, economic, and urban decline A struggle back toward stability.

The Dark Ages

the name given to Medieval Europe due to its lack of cultural, societal, intellectual, political and economic progress

The Franks

A group of Germanic tribes. They became allies of the Romans and became Christian. In the 8th century they established the Carolingian rule. Perhaps the most famous leader was Charlemagne.


King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning

The Viking Invasions

The Vikings built fast ships where they would ship men and cargo from their land to charlemagnes empire to pilage and plunder.

Fuedal System

The economic and social system of medieval europe, lords recieved land from the King in exchane for loyalty and serfs worked the land for the lords in exchange for protection.


An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.

The Lord of the Manor

Ruled the manor. Had bailiffs to take care of day-to-day affairs.

The law of Primogeniture

Gave all property to the eldest son. Led many younger sons of the gentry to seek their fortunes in exploration and colonization.

Fuedal Contract

provided land in exchange for personal service to the King.

Hugh Capet

established Capeatian rule in France, put to throne because of his weakness; made throne hereditary; Capetians had an unbroken succession for 300 years; effective beauracracy

The Hundred Years War

This was a war between France and England between 1346 and 1453. It was fought over land in France that each wanted to control. The British began strongly, but with the help of Joan of Arc, the French rallied and eventually beat England. Two famous battles from the war are Crecy and Agincourt.

Norman Conquest

the invasion and settlement of England by the Normans following the Battle of Hastings (1066)

The Battle of Hastings

the battle that took place in 1066, in which William the Conqueror and Harold Godwinson fought for control of Normandy?

English Common Law

The basis of a court system for justice. The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent to the facts before them.

English Parliment

The legaslative body of england (lawmaking), two houses: house of lords and house of commons

The Magna Carta

Document written in 1215 which limited the power of the King and established the principle of limited government and the fundamental rights of English citizens. The document also introduced such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law.

The House of Lords

…The House of Lords mainly consist of the peers and the people that have inherited their money. This House of Parliament has slowly lost its power to influence the system of government over the years.

The House of Commons

The most of the power lies on the shoulders of the House of the Commons. The Commons is elected by the people. The commons grant money, and is the law-making body in the british government.The commons pick the Prime Minister.

The War of the Roses

This war was between Aristocrats and Nobles. The Nobles wanted to control the throne so the first Tudor King, Henry VII took the throne in 1485. He abolished the Noble’s private armies.

The House of Lancaster

Following the Hundred Years’ war, civil war broke out between these two rival branches of the English royal Family, Lancaster claimed the throne of England when the Hundred Year finally ended

The House of York

crused by the House of Lancaster

The Reconquista

the seven-and-a-half century long process by which Christians reconquered the Iberian peninsula modern Portugal and Spain from the Muslim and Moorish states of Al-Ándalus

The Holy Roman Empire

The collection of Papal states directly under the control of the Pope. Included lands in Italy, Germany, France, Spain, and England.

Frederick Barbarossa

Among the most vigorous of the medieval emperors. Clashed with the pope over the appointment of the clergy. Known as “the red beard” (r. 1152-1190). He attempted to conquer Lombardy (n. Italy) and unite the German princes, but the popes did not approve of this and forced him to surrender Lombardy.

Decentralization of the Germanic States

Caused by a continuing power struggle with the Pope.

Class Division

The separation of people into different social groups like lower class, upper class. Clergy & nobility were the privileged class, peasants and artisans wer the work force and serfs were tied to the land.

Commercial Revival

Renewal in trade/ growth in economy. No more manorialism. Expanded the social class and a true middle class emerged. Introduced banking and the Guild system.

The Crusades

A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims


A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)

Realism (Plato)

Reality consists of ideas that exist in the mind, independant of sensory powers of perception.


a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD

The Middle Ages

a period in European history, between about 1000 AD and 1500 AD, when the power of kings, people of high rank and the Christian Church was strong

The Renaissance

The great rebirth of acrt, literature, and learning in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries which marked the transition from the medieval to modern periods of European history., A new way of thinking. Which laed to future reforms for the catholic church and ultimately different religons


the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason


A system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism


Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that “the end justifies the means.”

Classical Art

the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized

The Protestant Reformation

16th century religious movement led by Martin Luther that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the formation of Protestantism

Martin Luther

A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

The Act of Supremacy

This was the 2nd law passed by Parliament for King Henry VIII. It said that King Henry VIII was the only supreme head of the Church of England, and this church was formed from this act.

The Peace of Augsburg

officially recognized Lutherism but allowed Catholic Priests to support Catholicism.

Ninety Theses

This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance.

The Counter Reformation

The Roman Catholic Church responding to the protestantism by starting their own movement– they stopped selling indulgences and started “Society of Jesus” or Jesuit missionaries to spread Catholic ideas.

The Jesuits

Members of the Society of Jesus which became most well known for their work in education of Catholics in Europe. They were devoted to preaching, educating the young, fighting against heresy, serving the Pope, and caring for the needy.

The Council of Trent

An assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation.

Effect of the Reformation

Western Europe no longer united by religion
Weakens power and influence of the Catholic Church The power of states was strenthened as was the middle class. Encourages education-people encouraged to read the bible and interpret it individually

The Spanish Armada

One of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare which was sent to attack England in 1588. The smaller English fleet was able to defeat the armada by using its ease of maneuverability and ended Spain’s domination of the Atlantic Ocean and made England the power.

The French Religious Wars

A religious wars in France that started because of the Concordat of Bologna. This war was not only a religious war but a class war. It was between the Huguenots, who were Upper-class intellectuals who were Calvinist vs. the average poor French Catholics. The real fighting started after the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and did not end until 15 years later when the Edict of Nantes was set into place.

The Huguenots

French Protestants who suffered persecution. Many left Europe for America to find religious freedom

Henry IV

first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris

Elizabeth I

This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England

James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

The Puritan Revolution

A lesser used title for the English Civil War.


Religious movement founded by John Calvin, based on the doctrine of predestination.

The Thirty Years War

A war that occurred between 1618 and 1648; it was mainly a civil war in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over religious and political issues; it also involved the countries of Spain, France, Denmark, and Sweden

The Peace of Westphalia

Ended the Thirty Years War.
1. Recognized independent authority of German princes. 2. Allowed France to intervene in German affairs. 3. Pope couldn’t participate in German religious affiars.

The Scientific Revolution

a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas in physics, astronomy, and biology, in institutions supporting scientific investigation, and in the more widely held picture of the universe

Baroque Style

17th century Europe, elaborate and detailed artwork, drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music


political system in which a ruler holds total power. The ruler has total control and final say over their people.

Cardinal Richelieu

King Louis XIII was a weak ruler and Richelieu filled the void, more or less running the empire via his advice to the king. A clever politician and strategist, Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a great European power

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

The Palace of Versailles

The “Theatre of politics.” The nobility were required to live there by Louis XIV, beautiful architecture and gardens. Symbol of French state and power

The English Civil War

A war that broke out between the parliament supporters (roundheads) and the king’s supporters (cavaliers). It ended with the execution of the king, Charles I

The Commonwealth Period

Oliver Cromwell ruled as a dictator and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

The Restoration Era

the restoration of the monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the wars of the 3 kingdoms. Stuart rule was restored.

The Glorious Revolution

The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch’s William and Mary. 1688, change of who is in power without bloodshed. Established the supremacy of Parliment.

The Romanov Dynasty

Following the death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584, Russia experienced a period of weakness and disorder known as the Time of Troubles. Hoping to restore order, an assembly of nobles elected Michael Romanov to be the next czar. The Romanov Dynasty ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917.

Peter the Great

Russian tsar. He enthusiastically introduced Western languages, culture, and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)


revival of a classical style in art or literature or architecture or music but from a new perspective or with a new motivation

The Age of Enlightenment

A broad intellectual movement in 18th‐century Europe that advocated the use of reason in the re‐evaluation of accepted ideas. Also known as the Age of Reason.


French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance

Laisssez Faire

The idea that the government should not play an active role in regulating the economy.

French Revolution

the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.

Causes of the French Revolution

Englightenment, unequal tax system, bad harvests, debt, absolute monarchy, economic issues, inequitable class structure, disorganized legal system, no representation.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The French version of the American Declaration

The French Republic

Prompted by Louis Philippe giving up his throne, this was a new era of liberalism in France. Measures enacted included freeing slaves, granting all males the right to vote, abolishing capital punishment, the establishment of national workshops, and the enactment of a 10-hour workday in Paris.

Napoleon Bonepart

Military Genius of France, who later became a dictator and eventually overthrown. He sold the west land (Louisiana) to the United States for a very cheap price doubling the land of America.

The Code of Napoleon

This was the French law put in place by Napoleon. It promoted equality before the law, toleration of all religions, and outlawing serfdom and feudalism. It also took away women’s rights and outlawed trade unions and strikes.

The Continental System

Napoleon cut off all trade with Great Britain to try and make Europe more self-sufficient, an economic blockade of Britain. The Foreign Policy of Napoleon, essentially an effort to thwart English advancement by nationally prohibiting British trade with France

The Congress of Vienna

The meeting of representatives from each of the nations in the Quadruple Alliance. Its purpose was to draft a peace settlement by redrawing Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France. It succeeded in constructing a settlement that wouldn’t spark a war.

The Congress of Verona

1822 ended the congress system & allowed European powers to be guided by self-interest.

Gothic Revival

1830s movement in architecture when buildings in the Gothic (high medieval) style became popular. It was in this period that the British Parliament building was built. This was the architectural manifestation of Romanticism. Where the Enlightenment had looked down on the Middle Ages as a “dark” period of ignorance, the Romantics celebrated the Medieval period for its spiritualism, depth, and sense of adventure.

Militant Socialism

Forceful seizure of governmental power

Industrial Revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

Causes of the Industrial Revolution

-The scientific revolution brought about new mechanical inventions
-The availability of investment capital and the rise of the middle class provided an economic base
-Geographic and social conditions in England favored industrialization:
—The cotton textile industry was well established
—Britain was a colonial and maritime power and was able to easily ship products; rivers provided the necessary waterpower to run machinery
—England had abundant reserves of coal and iron
—The necessary labor force was in place following the enclosure movement that forced thousands of people from rural land to cities
—Investment capital supplied by a burgeoning middle class provided money to purchase equipment for the emergent factories

Result Of the Industrial Revolution

Mass production of goods and the rise of the factory system. From Rural to Urban centers. The division of society into defined calsses propertied and unpropertied. The development of modern Capitalism.

The Intellectual Response to the Industrial Revolution

-The classical economists advanced the theory of laissez faire
-Thomas Malthus (1776-1834) theorized that population growth would far outstrip food production
-The revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx advocated a violent overthrow of the present economic system
—History was seen as a class struggle between the exploiters (bourgeoisie) and the exploited (proletariat)


the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people


the class of modern wage laborers who having no means of production of their own, are reducing to selling their labor power in order to live

The Communist Manifesto

A book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that describes the new political system of scientific socialism, which becomes the basis for communism. The book states that all of human history is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (working class), and predicted that the proletariat would rise up in a violent revolution to overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a society with an equal distribution of goods and services.

African Savana

A flat, dry grassland with trees and bushes

African Desert

An extremely dry area with little water and few plants


concerning farms, farmers, or agriculture and the use of land.

African Rivers

Several have inland as well as coastal deltas
Nile flows northward . Niger, Nile, Congo, Zambezi And were important to Africa’s economic history.

Rift Valley

African Civilization developed here


African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile circa 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries. Important iron working center.

Tribal Organization

Organization with midsize societies ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand people, with somewhat more power available to leaders.

African Culture

Made up of art and culture, music/dance,storytelling and very Religious


First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.


Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.


this group from the east of Mali built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River near Gao whic became the capital of their empire.


a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast

Kingdom of Zimbabwe

Large powerful kingdom in East/Central africa. Controlled and taxed trade between the interior and coastal regions, Organized the flow of gold, ivory, slaves, forged alliances w/ local rulers & profited immensely from these transactions.

Islamic Culture

flourishing trade, medical encyclopedia, library, Algebra, spices, silks, perfumes, porcelain, textile goods


A kingdom of the West African rain forest

Slave Trade

European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.


characterized by moving about from place to place as nomads

The Hopewell People

were skilled farmers & flourished in the Ohio & Mississippi Valleys (200BC to 400AD).

Mississippian Culture

Last of the mound-building cultures of North America; flourished between 800 and 1300 C.E.; featured large towns and ceremonial centers; lacked stone architecture of Central America.

The Anasazi Culture

800-1300 developed in the Southwest & the Anasazis were skilled builders & sophisticated farmers. Example Mesa Verde Cliff houses

The Olmec

-1200-400 B.C.
South-central Mexico
-Developed one of the first civilizations in Mesoamerica
-Developed an agricultural community
-Developed the first calendar in America
-Noted artwork in many media (jade, clay, basalt, and greenstone)
-Monumental sculpture (colossal heads)

The Mayas

-A.D. 250-900
-Yucatan peninsula
-Achieved a complex civilization
-Maya cities were trade and religious centers
-The Mayas excelled in many fields, including mathematics, science, astronomy, and engineering (pyramid building)
-Only known written language of pre-Columbian Americas
-Sophisticated art
-Monumental architecture (Tikal, Palenque)

The Aztecs

Central Mexico
-Conquered much of central Mexico
-The Toltecs preceded the Aztecs
-The Aztecs built a great city (Tenochtitlan) and ruled an empire
-Religion and war dominated Aztec life
-Rich mythological and religious traditions
-Architecturally accomplished (city planning, Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan, temples and palaces)
-Artistically advanced

The Incas

-A.D. 1200-1533
-Northwest coastal region and inland region of South America Peru
-Controlled a vast empire in South America
-The Tiahuanaco culture developed in the Andes Mountains and the Incas unified an extensive empire
-The Incas developed a sophisticated record-keeping system and were highly skilled craftsmen
-Engineering/architecture Machu Picchu, stone construction without mortar, extensive road system linking empire together
-Art (gold and silver working, ceramics, textiles


a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia

The Delhi Sultanate

The Islamic state founded by Turkish warriors in northern India during the 13th century.


A body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth.

The Caste System

-Originated in India (1500 B.C.) as part of the teachings of Hinduism
-Divided people into four distinct and inflexible social groups: priests and teachers; rulers and warriors; merchants and artisans; and peasants and servants (the lowest caste)
-People who did not belong to any group were the untouchables
-Members of one caste could not marry or even eat with members of another caste
-No amount of success would allow a person to move from one caste to another
-Outlawed in 1950


The term for The Univeral Soul in Hinduism.


These people united and ruled most of India. After Babur invaded India, Akbar became the main ruler of this kind. They were great builders Taj Mahal, but their empire declined quickly (by 1750).


Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)

Sung Dynasty

the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279

Tang Dynasty

dynasty often referred to as China’s Golden age that reigned during 618 – 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria

The Mongols

Were United by Genghis Khan to capture all of asia, which they did except for India. Asia under Mongolian ruler till grandson of Gings (Kublai) died and there was an overturning.

Genghis Khan

A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.

Kublai Khan

Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather’s conquest of China

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

Ming Dynasty

A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century.The ousted the Mongols. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia

The Manchus

-Entered China and easily changed the Ming dynasty into the Qing dynasty since they were sinicized before
-Established a Confucian government with six ministries, a censorate, and other Chinese institutions
-Were segregated from the Chinese
Forbidden to marry Chinese
The children had to study their language
No footbinding
Followed a policy of Isolationism.


Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.


The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.

The Heian Era

The Heian Era commenced in 794, and was a time when Japan gradually stopped imitating China, developing into a distinct new culture. The new culture mixed both Chinese and Japanese cultures, combining the faiths of China, Shintoism, and Buddhism. A new writing system called kana was simplified from the Chinese writing into a phonetic Japanese alphabet. By the twelfth century a warrior class called samurais dominated the Heian region. However, the warloads did not take over the emperor’s position, but instead took a more serious lead position and became the shogun, controller of Japan’s armies.

The Shogun

created during kamakura era, In theory: Emperor’s military chief of staff, In reality: Actual ruler of Japan

Kamakura Shogunate

A military dictatorship in Japan headed by the shoguns from 1185 to 133. It was based in Kamakura which was the capital of the shogunate.

Ashikaga Shogunate

The Ashikaga Shogunate is the weakest of the three Japanese bakufu governments. Unlike its predecessor, the Kamakura Shogunate, or its successor, the , when Ashikaga Takauji established his bakufu he had little personal territories with which to support his rule. The Ashikaga Shogunate was thus heavily reliant on the prestige and personal authority of its shoguns.

Tokugawa Shogunate

Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan’s ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished because fighting was illegal; had new forms of art – kabuki and geishas

The Samurai

Known as knights of feudal Japan and retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period. They were privileged to wear two swords, and at one time had the right to cut down any commoner who offended them. They cultivated the martial virtues, indifference to pain or death, and unfailing loyalty to their overlords.

Early Japanese Culture

Developed their own language, a sophisticated systemof writing, literature and poetry, with great emphasis on a love of nature, beauty, and good manners.

Shinto Religion

The first religion of Japan, “The way of the Gods.” Shinto celebrates the mysteries and unforeseen forces of nature. Animistic. According to Shinto beliefs, divine spirits called kami are associated with the awesome forces of nature, such as rushing rivers, thundering waterfalls, etc.

The theory of the Divine right

The right of the ruler to rule was inherited from his or her ancestors, who were believed to have been appointed by a supreme being. It is identified w/absolutist governments. It was accepted as the justification for the rule of kings in much of the western world from the 15th-18th centuries. Theory was weakend & replaced by the new contact theory, which held that ruler’s power was granted to him not by God, but the sovereign people.

The economic interest theory

The primary role of gov. & of the state is to develop, promote, & protect economic interests such as trade, markets, commerce, & wealth. Economic interestss that thrive under the protection of the state are powerful in determining the direction of governmental policy.

The force theory

This theory holds that the state is a product of force & conquest. Like other theories, it cannot be proved & is generally considered inadequate as an explanation of the origin of the state.

Presidential government

A distictive feature of the executive is that he or she is elected independently of the legislative & holds office for a fixed period. Also, the executive has extensive power not subject to control by the legislature. The term presidential government is descriptive of the system employed by the US.

Cabinet or parliamentary gov.

Policy-making executives are the prime minister & the # of the cabinet, all of whom are members of the legislature & dependent on support of the legislature for continuance in office. Parliamentary gov. differs from the American system of separation of powers in that executive authority is dependent on the legislature.


A loose union of states in which the principal power of gov are retained by the individual member states. Central gov. exists to perform a limited # of functions, such as national defense. The US was a confederation for 8 years under the Articles of Confederation.


A federation, such as the US, is a union of 2 or more local governments under 1 central gov., with both the central & local govs excercising independent spheres of authority, either in theory or in practice. In encourages unity in matters of general concern, but autonomy (independent authority) in matters of local concern.


holds that all government is evil, unnecessary, & undesirable.


advocates the restriction of governmental activities within narrow limits, leaving a broad area of freedom to the individual.


stands for relatively rapid & sweeping economic collectivism (gov. ownership).


Government resting on the will of a single person or a small group of persons. The welfare of the state is often held above the welfare of the individual.


The primary meaning is government by the people. Indirect democracy implies government by the people’s representatives, as in the U.S.

Balance of Power

Separated and balanced among executive, legislative, & judicial branches to avoid centralization of powers & resultant tyranny.

The presidential veto

An example of an executive check on the legislative branch.

Control of expenditures

Is an example of a legislative check on the executive branch.

The power to interpret

The Constitution & laws is an example of a check the judicianry holds over the president & Congress.

The power of enforcement

of court decisions is a check of the executive over the judicial branch.

Article I, Section 10

This forbids the states to enter treaties, coin money, subvert the national currency, or pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts, and so on. It outlaws tariffs by states.

The 14th Amendment

It defines citizenship, providing supremacy of national citizenship over state citizenship. It restrains the states from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without due process of law or denying persons the equal protection of laws.

The 15th Amendment

intended to give blacks the right to vote.

The 19th Amendment

forbids states to deny women the right to vote.

The 24th Amendment

forbids states to collect a poll tax as a prerequisite to voting in national elections.

The 26th Amendment

allows 18-year olds to vote in national elections.

Two major parties

During most of US history, power has alternated between 2 major parties.

Minor parties

do arise & influence national politics. Minor parties have sometimes had senators & representatives elected and have occasionally dominated state & local politics.

No minor party

has ever had a president elected.

Major parties

sometimes disappear, but the development of a new second party is the traditional pattern.


can be confronted with an either-or choice, thus simplifying decisions & political processes.

Electoral decisions

are usually majority decisions, encouraging majority support for governmental policies.

Governmental stability

is enhanced by a two-party system as opposed to a multiparty system.

Bering Strait

Many people believe this was once a land bridge connecting Russia and Alaska; the first Americans used this to settle in North America

California Indians

Spoke a great diversity of dialects. Largest concentration of Indians in North America. Similar physical traits and features. Primarily hunter/gatherer societies. Subsistence was based almost exclusively on availble resources.

When did the earliest peoples arrive in California?

About 15,000 years ago

Why were California’s indigenous people isolated from the cultures that developed on the Great Plains?

Rugged topography:
. mountains
. deserts

Were California’s indigenous people isolated from the cultures in Mexico?

Yes. It’s the topography thing again.

Travel by foot within a region was easy or difficult?


Why did California have a patchwork of isolated and distinct tribal groupings?

Regional relations between groups were limited b/c travel was difficult

The geologic period during which people crossed the Bering Strait land bridge into North America?

Late Pleistocene or Early Ice Age 20,000 to 30,000 years ago

Is there controversy about when people arrived in California?

Yes. Evidence from the archaeological site at Calico could push the date to 50,000.

California Indian Language

Diverse set of dialects Remember the were isolated by the topography

Were there a large number of California Indians or a small number?

Large number:
. Estimated: 150,000 – 300,000

How did the California Indian dwellings vary with location & climate?

North: frame & plank
Southern desert: brush shelters
Coast: earthen mounds

Relative to the Plains Indians, were the California Indians warlike?


Were the weapons of the California Indians very sophisticated?

No. bow and arrow, obsidian points hunting blades, spears, harpoons, clubs, and throwing sticks

What did the California Indians eat?

. Oak trees were plentiful

Acorn Preparation

. dry
. store
. crack
. leach
before eating

Transportation reflected geographic factors. What 2 kinds of boats were used?

South: balsa & raft-type boats
North: plank canoes

Shared heritage:
How was lineage traced?

Paternal side

Shared heritage:
What was smoked in ceremonies?

jimsonweed Native tobacco