Drug Synthesis & Effect – Pharmacology

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Drug Synthesis & Effect – Pharmacology

This chapter is about drug synthesis and effect of pharmacology.



antihistamine

blocks the action of a substance produced in tissues (activated in allergic response)


synergism

effect of combination of two drugs is greater than each drug alone


hypnotic

pertaining to sleep


idiosyncrasy

unexpected effect of a drug (peculiar to an individual)


aerosol

particles of drug suspended in air


iatrogenic

adverse effect related to being produced by a treatment


sublingual

pertaining to under the tongue


hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin


narcotic

pertaining to a stupor


pharmacology

study of drugs


erythromycin

antibiotic drug produced from a red mold


analgesia

condition of lack of sensitivity to pain


chemotherapy

treatment using drugs


subcutaneous

pertaining to under the skin


bronchodilator

a drug that widens bronchial tubes


oral

pertaining to the mouth


antipyretic

pertaining to against fever


intrathecal

pertaining to within the sheath (of the brain and spinal cord)


antipruritic

pertaining to against itching


toxic

pertaining to a poison


antibiotic

pertaining to a drug that is against (bacterial) life


parenteral

pertaining to other than throught the intestine


anaphylaxis

exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction


synergistic

pertaining to when the effect of two drugs is greater than either alone


intravenous

pertaining to within a vein


contraindication

a factor that prevents the use of a drug or treatment


vasodilator

a drug that widens a blood vessel


antidote

agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug


toxicology

study of poisons (e.g., harmful chemicals and their effects on the body)


vitamin

substance found in foods that is necessary for good health and life


brand name

commercial name for a drug: trademark or trade name


chemical name

chemical formula for a drug


generic name

legal, noncommercial name for a drug


addiction

physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug


antagonistic action

combination of two drugs gives less than an additive effect


antidote

agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug


additive action

drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each


medicinal chemistry

study of new drug synthesis, relationship between chemical structure and biological effects


molecular pharmacology

study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules, enzymes, or cell surface receptors.


pharmacy

location for preparing and dispensing drugs


pharmacist

specialist in preparing and dispensing drugs


pharmacodynamics

study of effects and strength of a drug within the body (e.g., drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion)


pharmacokinetics

calculation of drug concentration in tissues and body fluids over a period of time


side effect

adverse reaction that routinely results from use of a drug


receptor

target substance with which a drug interacts in the body


syringe

instrument for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body


amphetamine

CNS stimulant


anesthetic

drug that reduces or eliminates sensation


ACE inhibitor

drug that lowers BP


antacid

drug that neutralizes acid in the stomach


topical application

drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body


emetic

drug that promotes vomiting


Drug Synthesis & Effect – Pharmacology

bisphosphonate

drug that prevents bone loss and osteopenia


cathartic

drug that relieves constipation


beta-blocker

drug that is antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antianginal by blocking receptors in blood vessels


diuretic

drug that increases urine production and thus reduces blood volume in the body and lower BP


calcium channel blocker

antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, and antianginal drug that blocks entrance of calcium into heart muscle and lining of blood vessels


antiplatelet

reduces that ability of thrombocytes to stick together and form a clot


anticoagulant

prevents clotting of blood (prevents clot formation or breaks up clots in blood vessels)


heparin

a natural anticoagulant purified from pig intestine or bovine (cow) lung


anesthesia

condition of lack of feeling or sensation


no excessive sensitivity to pain

analgesic


widening of the bronchial tubes

bronchodilator


combination of two drugs that have a greater effect – condition of working together

synergism


an unpredictable type of drug toxicity – condition of unknown effect

idiosyncrasy


solution in the air – particles of drugs suspended in air

aerosol


pertaining to – under the skin

subcutaneous injection


pertaining to – below the skin

hypodermic


pertaining to – no feeling, no nervous sensation

anesthesia


against nitrogen compound in the tissue

antihistamine


pertaining to sleep

hypnotic


produced by treatment

iatrogenic


pertaining to – under the tongue – drug placed

sublingual administration


a substance of red mold

erythromycin


pertaining to stupor/sleep

narcotic


pertaining to – mouth – drugs given by

oral administration

the study of preparation, properties, uses, and actions of drugs – study of drugs

pharmacology


pertaining to against itching

antipruritics


pertaining to against fever

antipyretic


pertaining to – within the sheath (menings) – injection

intrathecal instillation


pertaining to poison

toxic


study of harmful effects of drugs on the body

toxicology


widening of a blood vessel

vasodilator


pertaining to – within the vein – injection

intravenous injection

nitrogen substance of life

vitamin


great hypersensitivity to foreign substance – backward protection

anaphylaxis


against what is given – substance given to neutralize unwanted effects of drugs

antidote


pertaining to against life

antibiotic


against reason to prescribe a medication

contraindication


other than the intestines – injection

parenteral administration


pertaining to work equal together

synergistic


drugs effect on the body

pharmacodynamics

use of drugs in treatment of cancer & infectious disease

chemotheraphy


drugs concentration in tissue & blood measure over a period of time

pharmacokinetics


suppositories & aqueous solutions are inserted into the rectum

rectal administration


injection into a body cavity

intracavitary instillation


injection within the skin

intradermal injection


injection within the muscle – buttock or upper arm

intramuscular injection


up the nose

inhalation


putting on the skin

topical application


against infection

antiseptics


through the skin

transdermal patches


against clotting

anticoagulant


against convulsions

anticonvulsants


against vomiting

antiemetic


against depression

antidepressants


against diabetes

antidiabetics


against osteoporosis

antiosteoporosis


against lower blood pressure

anti hypotension


against high blood pressure

anti hypertension


producing male

androgens


producing female

estrogens

against acids in the stomach

antiacids


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