Bronchodilator – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Apps

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Chapter 37: Respiratory Drug Test, Bronchodilator, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include, Chapter 37, Respiratory Drug Test, Bronchodilator, Nurse, Patient, Salmeterol, Albuterol, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


A nurse is providing education to a patient taking two different bronchodilator medications. The nurse identifies which characteristic as the advantage of salmeterol over other beta2 agonists such as albuterol?

Extended time of action

Longer duration of action

Quicker peak action

Shorter onset of action

Salmeterol has a longer duration of action, requiring the patient to use it only twice a day instead of three or four times a day with albuterol.


Which statement by the nurse would be included when teaching a patient about the proper use of metered-dose inhalers?

“Wait 1 to 2 minutes before you take a second puff of the same drug.”

“Make sure that you puff out air several times after you inhale the medication.”

“After you inhale the medication once, repeat until you obtain relief.”

“Hold the inhaler in your mouth, take a deep breath, and then compress the inhaler.”

If a second puff of the same drug is ordered, instruct the patient to wait 1 to 2 minutes between puffs. If a second type of inhaled drug is prescribed, instruct the patient to wait 2 to 5 minutes between the medications or to take as prescribed.


The nurse performs discharge teaching with a patient who is prescribed the anticholinergic inhaler ipratropium bromide. Which statement by the patient indicates to the nurse that teaching has been successful?

“This inhaler is not to be used alone to treat an acute asthma attack.”

“I may gain weight as a result of taking this medication.”

“I will not drink grapefruit juice while taking this drug.”

“Nausea and vomiting are common adverse effects of this medication.”

Although ipratropium works to prevent bronchoconstriction and thus secondarily leads to bronchodilation, a direct-acting bronchodilator is needed to treat an acute asthma attack.


Which herbal product, when taken with theophylline, can decrease theophylline’s serum drug levels?

Garlic

Echinacea

St. John’s wort

Peppermint oil

St. John’s wort has been shown to enhance the rate of theophylline metabolism, thus decreasing serum levels.


Which laboratory value would the nurse assess before administering zafirlukast to a patient?

Renal function tests

Complete blood count

Liver enzymes

Cardiac enzymes

Because use of zafirlukast may lead to liver dysfunction, liver enzyme levels should be monitored regularly, especially early in the course of therapy.


A patient is taking a xanthine derivative as part of treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The nurse will monitor for which adverse effects associated with the use of xanthine derivatives?

Palpitations

Drowsiness

Diarrhea

Bradycardia

The common adverse effects of the xanthine derivatives include nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. In addition, gastroesophageal reflux has been observed to occur during sleep in patients taking these drugs. Cardiac adverse effects include sinus tachycardia, extrasystole, palpitations, and ventricular dysrhythmias. Transient increased urination and hyperglycemia are other possible adverse effects.