Rational Principle – Truth & Error – Philosophy

Rational Principle – Truth & Error – Philosophy

This Philosophy lesson details rational principle, gaining truth and avoiding error and soul.


The Rational Principle states that

you should gain errors in order to learn from your mistakes

you should believe whatever makes you happy.

you should ignore your emotions when making a decision

you should gain truth and avoid error -Correct

there’s a reason for everything


If truth has merely instrumental value, then a good principle is

you should believe whatever makes you happy.- Correct

you should believe nothing at all

you should gain truth and avoid error

you should believe everything you hear

None of the above


If truth has intrinsic value, then a good principle is

you should gain truth and avoid error – Correct

you should believe everything you here

you should believe nothing at all

None of the above

you should believe whatever makes you happy.


If we ought to gain truth and avoid error, then

it is not OK to believe whatever you want – Correct

we will never have knowledge

it is OK to believe whatever you want

we will always learn from our mistakes

what’s the point, really, to anything?


The best way to pursue knowledge is

believe everything you hear

look at the evidence for claims before believing them – Correct

believe nothing at all

never consider evidence against your beliefs

believe whatever makes you happy


True or false?

According to McRaney, we can be sure that our opinions are the results of rational, objective analysis.

True

False – Correct


According to McRaney, you should _____.

move closer to the truth by seeking evidence that confirms your beliefs.

move closer to the truth by seeking evidence to the contrary of your claims. – Correct

No answer text provided.


According to McRaney, the misconception associated with the fundamental attribution error is _____.

other people’s behavior is more the result of the situation than their disposition.

you believe your opinions and decisions are based on experience and facts

other people’s behavior is a reflection of their personality. – Correct

you evaluate yourself based on past successes and defeats


McRaney describes a classic study of the fundamental attribution error conducted by Edward Jones and Victor Harris at Duke University in 1967. In this study, the students read transcripts of debaters both in support of and in opposition to the political ideologies of Fidel Castro. When the students were told the debater had no choice in the matter and was assigned a pro-Castro position, they _____. 

told the researcher that the debater really believed what he or she was saying. – Correct

told the researcher that the debater might not really believe he or she was saying.


According to McRaney, first impressions are _____.

mostly incorrect. – Correct

completely correct

completely incorrect

mostly correct


That crocodile hasn’t eaten for two weeks, so it is probably hungry

“That crocodile hasn’t eaten for two weeks” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument

Yes, this is an argument . – Correct

“it [the crocodile] is probably hungry” is the conclusion. – Correct


Atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased substantially since 1800, and it is known to have a “greenhouse” effect, so it is likely that global warming is the result of burning fossil fuels.

Yes, this is an argument.. – Correct

No, this is not an argument

“it is likely that global warming is the result of burning fossil fuels” is the concluison. – Correct

“Atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased substantially…” is the conclusion


It was so hot yesterday that I couldn’t work in the garden, but it is supposed to be cooler today.

“it is supposed to be cooler today” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument. – Correct

Yes, this is an argument.

“It was so hot yesterday that I couldn’t work in the garden” is the conclusion


Anyone who either insults his or her boss or can’t use email properly deserves to be fired. I can’t use email properly I can’t use email properly, so I deserve to be fired.

“I deserve to be fired” is the conclusion. – Correct

“I can’t use email properly” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument

Yes, this is an argument. – Correct

“Anyone who either insults his or her boss or can’t use email properly deserves to be fired” is the conclusion


If I take up smoking, my health insurance rates will go up and I’ll also get sick.

Yes, this is an argument

“I’ll also get sick” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument. – Correct

“If I take up smoking, my health insurance rates will go up” is the conclusion


Although many people think that global warming is caused by humans, it is really just part of earth’s natural cycle.

“[global warming] … is really just part of earth’s natural cycle” is the conclusion.

No, this is not an argument. – Correct

Yes, this is an argument

“many people think that global warming is caused by humans” is the conclusion


The forest fire was caused by arson, since it could only have been caused by arson or lightning, and it definitely wasn’t caused by lightning.

Yes, this is an argument. – Correct

“it could only have been caused by arson or lightning” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument

“it definitely wasn’t caused by lightning” is the conclusion

“The forest fire was caused by arson” is the conclusion. – Correct


That eight-foot crocodile looks ferocious, with its huge teeth and mean eyes.

that crocodile has “huge teeth and mean eyes” is the conclusion

Yes, this is an argument

“That eight-foot crocodile looks ferocious” is the conclusion

No, this is not an argument. – Correct


Yesterday’s heat broke a record, since it was 104 degrees, and the previous high was only 102 degrees.

the previous high was only 102 degrees” is the conclusion

“it was 104 degrees” is the conclusion

Yes, this is an argument. – Correct

“Yesterday’s heat broke a record” is the conclusion. – Correct

No, this is not an argument


My car insurance rates will probably go up, since I got a speeding ticket and was thrown in jail for evading an officer.”

“I got a speeding ticket and was thrown in jail for evading an officer” is the conclusion

Yes, this is an argument. – Correct

No, this is not an argument

“My car insurance rates will probably go up” is the conclusion. – Correct


The problem of difference is

The problem of subtracting one thing from another

The problem of explaining how you are the same as everyone else

The problem of explaining how you are different from everyone else. – Correct

The problem of explaining how you are different from all babies of 20 years ago

The problem of explaining how you are the same person as some baby 20 years ago


The problem of sameness is

The problem of being too much like other people

The problem of explaining how you are the same as everyone else

The problem of explaining how you are different from all babies 20 years ago

The problem of explaining how you are the same person as some baby 20 years ago. – Correct

The problem of explaining how you are different from everyone else


Some of the different senses of “soul” are

soul = vitalist force

soul = supernatural stuff

soul = ghost

soul = mind

all of the above. – Correct


If your soul is a part or a possession of yours, then

it can be a good answer to the problem of identity

you could trade it for a better one

it fails to solve the problem of personal identity. – Correct

you could sell it for a jelly doughnut

you could lend it to someone who really needs it


According to the Physicalist Criterion for personal identity,

you are physical, but can be made out of any parts whatsoever

you are never the same person over time

any loss of parts means going out of existence

you need to have exactly the same physical parts throughout your entire life

the closest physical continuer relation is what unites a person from one time to the next. – Correct


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