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Chapter 32: Antidiabetic Drugs Test, Pramlintide, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Apps

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Antidiabetic Drugs, Pramlintide, Supplemental Drug Therapy, Patient, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

Pramlintide is prescribed as supplemental drug therapy to the treatment plan for a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. What information would the nurse include when teaching the patient about the action of this medication?

Pramlintide slows gastric emptying.

Pramlintide stimulates glucose production.

Pramlintide corrects insulin receptor sensitivity.

Pramlintide increases glucagon excretion.

Pramlintide is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone amylin. It works by slowing gastric emptying, suppressing glucagon secretion and hepatic glucose production, and increasing satiety (sense of having eaten enough). It is only administered via subcutaneously injection.

A patient who has type 2 diabetes is scheduled for an oral endoscopy and has been NPO (nothing by mouth) since midnight. What is the best action by the nurse regarding the administration of her oral antidiabetic drugs?

Withhold all medications as ordered.

Give the medication with a sip of water.

Administer half the original dose.

Contact the prescriber for further orders.

When the diabetic patient is NPO, the prescriber needs to be contacted for further orders regarding the administration of the oral antidiabetic drugs. The other options are incorrect.

The nurse is administering insulin lispro (Humalog) and will keep in mind that this insulin will start to have an effect within which time frame?

15 minutes

3 to 5 hours

1 to 2 hours

80 minutes

The onset of action for insulin lispro is 15 minutes. The peak plasma concentration is 1 to 2 hours; the elimination half-life is 80 minutes; and the duration of action is 3 to 5 hours.

When monitoring a patient’s response to oral antidiabetic drugs, the nurse knows that which laboratory result would indicate a therapeutic response?

Evening blood glucose level below 80 mg/dL

Fasting blood glucose level of 92 mg/dL

Random blood glucose level 180 mg/dL

Blood glucose level of 50 mg/dL after meals

The American Diabetes Association recommends a fasting blood glucose level of between 70 and 130 mg/dL for diabetic patients. The other options are incorrect.

When administering morning medications for a newly admitted patient, the nurse notes that the patient has an allergy to sulfa drugs. There is an order for the sulfonylurea glipizide (Glucotrol). Which action by the nurse is correct?

Give the drug, and monitor for adverse effects.

Give the drug as ordered 30 minutes before breakfast.

Give a reduced dose of the drug with breakfast.

Hold the drug, and check the order with the prescriber.

There is a potential for cross-allergy in patients who are allergic to sulfonamide antibiotics. Although such an allergy is listed as a contraindication by the manufacturer, most clinicians do prescribe sulfonylureas for such patients. The order needs to be clarified.

When teaching about hypoglycemia, the nurse will make sure that the patient is aware of the early signs of hypoglycemia, including which of these?

Hypothermia and seizures.

Nausea and diarrhea.

Fruity, acetone odor to the breath.

Confusion and sweating.

Early symptoms of hypoglycemia include the central nervous system manifestations of confusion, irritability, tremor, and sweating. Hypothermia and seizures are later symptoms of hypoglycemia. The other options are incorrect.