Antidiabetic Drugs – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Apps

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Chapter 32: Antidiabetic Drugs Test, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Antidiabetic Drugs, Regular Insulin, Insulin Isophane Suspension (NPH Insulin), Patient, Glargine, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


The patient is prescribed 30 units of regular insulin and 70 units of insulin isophane suspension (NPH insulin) subcutaneously every morning. The nurse would provide what teaching to the patient for insulin administration?

“Inject the needle at a 30-degree angle.”

“Rotate sites at least once or twice a week.”

“Draw up the regular insulin into the syringe first, followed by the cloudy NPH insulin.”

“Use a 23- to 25-gauge syringe with a 1-inch needle to increase insulin absorption.”

When insulins are mixed, withdraw the regular insulin (clear) first, followed by withdrawing the NPH insulin (cloudy).


What oral hypoglycemic drug has a quick onset and short duration of action, enabling the patient to take the medication 30 minutes before eating and skip the dose if he or she does not eat?

Pioglitazone

Acarbose

Metformin

Repaglinide

Repaglinide is known as the “Humalog of oral hypoglycemic drugs.” The drug’s very fast onset of action allows patients to take the drug with meals and skip a dose when they skip a meal.


When caring for a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, the nurse would question a prescription for which drug?

Insulin glargine

Glipizide

NPH insulin

Insulin glulisine

Oral antidiabetic drugs are classified as pregnancy B or C drugs and are generally not recommended for pregnant patients.


When teaching a patient about insulin glargine, which statement by the nurse about this drug is correct?

“You cannot mix this insulin with regular insulin, you will have to take two injections.”

“You can mix this insulin with NPH insulin to enhance its effects on glucose metabolism.”

“It is often combined with regular insulin to decrease the number of insulin injections per day.”

“The duration of action for this insulin is 8 to 10 hours, so you will need to take it twice a day.”

Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin with duration of action up to 24 hours. It should not be mixed with any other insulins. It is usually dosed once daily, but it may be dosed every 12 hours depending on the patient’s glycemic response.


Which long-acting insulin mimics natural, basal insulin with no peak action and a duration of 24 hours?

Insulin glargine

Regular insulin

Insulin glulisine

NPH insulin

Insulin glargine has a duration of action of 24 hours with no peaks, mimicking the natural, basal insulin secretion of the pancreas.


The nurse will instruct the patient to treat hypoglycemia with which drug?

Glucagon

Bumetanide

Propranolol

Acarbose

Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, raising serum glucose levels and is used to treat hypoglycemia.


Which is a rapid-acting insulin with an onset of action of less than 15 minutes?

Regular insulin

Insulin aspart

Insulin glargine

Insulin detemir

Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting insulin. Insulin glargine and insulin detemir are long-acting insulins. Regular insulin is a short-acting insulin.