Ocean Weather Climate Earth Science

Ocean Weather Climate Change – Earth Science

This chapter is about ocean, weather, climate change on Earth.

What does the principle of uniformitarianism tell us about the past?

  • The past is the key to the future.
  • Processes at work in the past were very different than those at work today.
  • The past has no bearing on the future or present.
  • The present is the key to the past. – correct

The Pacific Ocean is shrinking while the Atlantic Ocean is expanding. Which type of plate boundary must be involved in each location?

  • Pacific Ocean, convergent; Atlantic Ocean, transform
  • Pacific Ocean, transform; Atlantic Ocean, convergent
  • Pacific Ocean, convergent; Atlantic Ocean, divergent – correct
  • Pacific Ocean, divergent; Atlantic Ocean, transform

The theory of plate tectonics explains the movement of the plates by convection cells in which of the following layers?

  • crust
  • inner core
  • upper mantle – correct
  • outer core

Which of the following may occur at a transform plate boundary?

  • mountain building
  • volcanoes
  • earthquakes – correct
  • formation of new oceanic crust

Earthquakes are detected by which of the following?

  • barometer
  • seismograph – correct
  • global positioning system
  • Richter scale

Which of the following statements about S waves is true?

  • S waves move in a pulsating motion.
  • S waves are also called secondary waves. – correct
  • S waves travel through solids, liquids, and gases.
  • S waves arrive at a seismograph station first.

Why is coal not a mineral?

  • It does not have a regular composition.
  • It is organic. – correct
  • It does not occur naturally.
  • It is not a solid.

In a laboratory, you scratch an unknown mineral on a piece of unglazed porcelain. Which property are you trying to determine?

  • color
  • luster
  • streak – correct
  • fracture

Which of the following best describes an igneous rock that formed from cooling lava?

  • fine grained – correct
  • layered
  • coarse grained
  • foliated

Sedimentary rocks that form from evaporating seawater are classified as __________.

  • clastic
  • fossiliferous
  • organic
  • chemical – correct

How do metamorphic rocks form?

  • evaporation of seawater
  • cooling of magma
  • weathering and erosion due to water
  • change due to heat and pressure – correct

Which of the following is an example of chemical weathering?

  • A stream rounds and smoothes rocks into pebbles.
  • A growing tree root splits a boulder in two.
  • Acid rain discolors and disfigures a limestone statue. – correct
  • Freezing and thawing rainwater widens a crack in a sidewalk.

At which location will erosion take place?

Ocean Weather Climate Earth Science Geology quiztutors.com
  • A
  • B – correct
  • C
  • D

The sun’s energy hits earth’s surface at the most direct angle at which of the following locations?

  • North Pole
  • equator – correct
  • South Pole
  • 30° N or S latitude

Why does temperature increase with altitude through the stratosphere?

  • All layers of the atmosphere increase in temperature with altitude.
  • The stratosphere is closest to the sun.
  • The ozone layer is found in the stratosphere. – correct
  • The air molecules are closer together in the upper stratosphere.

Which gas is the most abundant in earth’s current atmosphere?

  • oxygen
  • hydrogen
  • nitrogen – correct
  • carbon dioxide

Which of the following was a major source of atmospheric oxygen?

  • outgassing
  • volcanic eruptions
  • decomposition of water
  • photosynthesis – correct

Barometers are used to measure which of the following?

  • temperature
  • humidity
  • atmospheric pressure – correct
  • wind speed

If heat energy is transferred from direct contact between a warm object and a cold object, it has been transferred by __________.

  • conduction – correct
  • the sun
  • convection
  • radiation

The Coriolis effect is caused by which of the following?

  • gravity
  • earth’s revolution
  • earth’s rotation – correct
  • radiation from the sun

The flow of air from land to a body of water is called a(n) __________.

  • summer monsoon
  • land breeze – correct
  • sea breeze
  • air current

Which of the following statements is most accurate?

  • Warm air exerts more pressure on the land than cold air.
  • Warm air sinks.
  • Warm air is less dense than cold air. – correct
  • Warm air is denser than cold air.

Which of the following best describes the thermosphere?

  • The atmosphere is so thin that gas molecules rarely contact each other. – correct
  • The thermosphere sits directly below the troposphere.
  • Lighter gases such as nitrogen and oxygen rise to the top of the thermosphere.
  • Heavier gases such as hydrogen and helium stay at the bottom of the thermosphere.

Tomorrow will be sunny with high clouds. What does this statement describe?

  • the air circulation in an area
  • the jet streams
  • the climate in an area
  • the weather in an area – correct

 Which of the following is one of the defining features of a hurricane?

  • high pressure
  • low pressure – correct
  • funnel cloud
  • rapid snowfall

Which of the following best defines climate?

  • Climate is the average, year-to-year conditions of temperature in an area.
  • Climate is the average, year-to-year conditions of weather in an area. – correct
  • Climate is the average, daily conditions of weather in an area.
  • Climate is the average, year-to-year precipitation in an area.

Which of the following determines a region’s climate?

  • air pressure and temperature
  • temperature and prevailing winds
  • prevailing winds and relative humidity
  • temperature and precipitation – correct

Which of the following can have a significant effect on a region’s climate?

  • only ocean currents
  • only elevation and latitude
  • ocean currents, mountains, elevation, and latitude – correct
  • only mountains

If winds blow against a mountain from the south, then on which slope would you expect to find the least precipitation?

  • north – correct
  • east
  • west
  • south

Which of the following processes is responsible for producing large amounts of snow in Buffalo, New York?

  • lake effect – correct
  • urban heat island
  • mountain lift effect
  • urban canyon effect

Which of the following is a consequence of urban heat islands?

  • decreased winds within the city
  • increased precipitation upwind of the city
  • increased precipitation downwind of the city – correct
  • increased winds within the city

In which city do the winds blow across an ocean?

  • Miami, Florida – correct
  • Charlotte, North Carolina
  • New York City
  • Denver, Colorado

Lower latitudes tend to have __________.

Which phrase best completes the sentence?

  • you can’t compare temperatures without including pressure data
  • higher average temperatures than higher latitudes – correct
  • lower average temperatures than higher latitudes
  • the same temperatures as higher latitudes

Brighton, Utah, is only 20 miles away from Salt Lake City, Utah. Its temperature is about 10° to 15° lower than Salt Lake City and it gets more snowfall.

Which statement most likely explains this difference?

  • Brighton is on the leeward side of the Rocky Mountains.
  • Brighton is farther north than Salt Lake City.
  • Brighton is at a higher elevation than Salt Lake City. – correct
  • Brighton is located near a large body of water such as an ocean.

What kind of climate is controlled by elevation more than any other factor?

  • highland – correct
  • temperate continental
  • tropical wet
  • polar

The type of vegetation that grows in a particular climatic zone is influenced mostly by __________.

Which term best completes the sentence?

  • prevailing winds
  • latitude
  • precipitation – correct
  • ocean currents

Hawaii is located at a relatively low latitude. Prevailing winds blow moist air off the ocean onto its shores.

Because of these factors, much of Hawaii’s vegetation is made up of __________.

Which choice best completes the sentence?

  • dense shrubs and grasses
  • lichens
  • cactus and yucca
  • rain forests – correct

Where would you find the warmest waters?

  • surface-mixed zone – correct
  • polar zone
  • deep zone
  • transition zone

Which of the following is directly related to deep-ocean currents?

  • temperature
  • wind
  • density – correct
  • salinity

Which of the following has a major role regulating global temperatures?

  • oceanic chemistry
  • oceanic salinity
  • ocean layering
  • oceanic currents – correct

Which biome receives too little water to support the growth of trees?

  • taiga
  • rain forest
  • deciduous forest
  • grassland – correct

Animals adapted for lack of water and extremes in temperature are found in which biome?

  • rain forest
  • tundra
  • deciduous forest –
  • desert – correct

What is the frozen soil of the tundra called?

  • savanna
  • canopy
  • understory
  • permafrost – correct

What is the major ion in seawater?

  • chloride – correct
  • magnesium
  • sodium
  • sulfate

Which of the following will increase the salt concentration in seawater?

  • evaporation – correct
  • ice cap melting
  • precipitation
  • runoff

Calcium carbonates are incorporated into the shells of microscopic marine plants and animals, and then precipitated into the ocean sediments.

This process is which of the following?

  • chemical precipitation
  • sediment deposition
  • biological precipitation – correct
  • evaporite deposition

Which of the following is not an example of a naturally occurring greenhouse gas?

  • chlorofluorocarbon – correct
  • nitrous oxide
  • methane
  • water vapor

Wavelengths of incoming solar radiation are __________________ the wavelengths of reradiated heat.

Which term best completes the sentence?

  • twice the size of
  • shorter than – correct
  • faster than
  • the same size as

Which of the following is true of greenhouse gases?

  • They reflect incoming solar radiation.
  • They are all naturally occurring.
  • They exist in fixed quantities.
  • They trap energy in the atmosphere. – correct

Which of the following separates layers of different density?

  • halocline
  • incline
  • pycnocline – correct
  • thermocline

If you took a white piece of plastic to a depth of 180 m, what color would it appear?

  • red
  • blue – correct
  • yellow
  • orange

Where would you find the least dense water?

  • at the surface of the Atlantic Ocean – correct
  • at 1,000 m in the Antarctic Ocean
  • below 1,000 m in the Pacific Ocean
  • at 200 m in the  Arctic Ocean

Which of the following makes ice cores so useful in determining the composition of the atmosphere in the past?

  • the presence of pollen
  • air bubbles – correct
  • the temperature of the core
  • fossilized plants

How are the changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide described?

  • Carbon dioxide levels have remained the same. .
  • Carbon dioxide levels have increased. – correct
  • Carbon dioxide levels cannot be measured.
  • Carbon dioxide levels have decreased.

Which of the following is a list of greenhouse gases?

  • oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
  • water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane – correct
  • water vapor, nitrogen, helium
  • water vapor, oxygen, sulfur

A thick tree ring indicates which of the following?

  • cold year
  • dry year
  • nutrient-rich year
  • warm year – correct

What impact can a volcanic eruption have on climate?

  • Climate is cooled as dust falls from the sky.
  • Climate is cooled as dust blocks incoming sunlight. – correct
  • Climate is warmed as dust increases the greenhouse effect.
  • Climate is warmed from the heat of the eruption.

How does plate tectonics affect climate?

  • increased earthquakes
  • extinction of animals
  • changing earth’s position on its axis
  • changing ocean circulation – correct

Which two factors cause upwelling?

  • differences in density and daily tides
  • prevailing winds and the Coriolis effect – correct
  • the Coriolis effect and changes in salinity
  • prevailing winds and daily tides

Which of the following varies daily?

  • coastline
  • beach
  • shore
  • shoreline – correct

A spring tide occurs during which of the following conditions?

  • The moon-earth and sun-earth alignments are perpendicular.
  • The earth is aligned with the moon and the sun. – correct
  • The earth is aligned with the moon only.
  • The earth is aligned with the sun only.

The lack of upwelling during an El Niño period results in which of the following?

  • a severe drop in water temperature
  • fish migration to other parts of the ocean – correct
  • huge and damaging waves
  • movement of nutrients to the surface

Which of the following was one result of El Niño that occurred in 1997-1998?

  • severe rains in Brazil
  • extremely cold winters in the northeast
  • droughts in Africa
  • heavy mudslides in California – correct

What sort of weather conditions might exist during La Niña?

  • warm winters in southeast – correct
  • mudslides in California
  • droughts in Australia
  • floods in Africa

Which of the following best describes a marine climate?

  • cold winters and hot summers
  • warm winters and cool summers – correct
  • warm temperatures year-round
  • cold temperatures year-round

What is the name of a tropical region that has a distinct wet and dry season?

  • desert
  • steppe
  • savanna – correct
  • tundra

Douglas fir, redwood, spruce, and cedar are trees adapted to survive in areas with heavy precipitation.

In which climatic zone would these trees be found?

  • Mediterranean
  • marine west coast – correct
  • steppes
  • humid subtropical

Which of the following describes why highland regions are colder than the surrounding regions?

  • Highland regions are found in higher latitudes.
  • Highland areas are far from large bodies of water.
  • Ocean currents stabilize the climate in highland regions.
  • Temperature decreases with altitude. – correct

Why are areas along the west coast of California cooler than you would expect for their latitude?

  • A cold ocean current travels along the coast. – correct
  • These areas are far from a large body of water.
  • A warm ocean current travels along the coast.
  • These areas are at higher altitudes.

When analyzing tree rings, what do scientists assume a thin ring indicates?

  • a year that was warm or dry
  • a year that was cool or dry – correct
  • a year that was wet or cool
  • a year that was warm or wet

Very cold periods in earth’s history resulted in which of the following?

  • sunspots
  • deposits of pollen
  • tree rings
  • glaciers – correct

Climatic regions are classified according to temperature and __________.

Which phrase best completes the sentence?

  • precipitation – correct
  • distance from bodies of water
  • altitude
  • ocean currents

Meteorologists studying the change in a region’s precipitation over a 20-year period are studying the region’s __________.

Which term best completes the sentence?

  • resources
  • pollution
  • weather
  • climate – correct

Although Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are located at nearly the same latitude, Milwaukee’s average high temperature for July is four degrees lower than that of Sioux Falls.

Which of the following best explains the reason for this difference?

High Temprature Sioux Falls, Milaukee, Ocean Weather, Climate quiztutors.com
  • Sioux Falls is in the path of most midlatitude cyclones.
  • Milwaukee is located near the Gulf Stream.
  • Sioux Falls is located in the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains.
  • Lake Michigan has a moderating effect on Milwaukee’s temperatures. – correct

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

  • carbon dioxide
  • methane
  • water vapor
  • oxygen – no response given – correct

What impact can a very large volcanic eruption have on earth’s climate?

  • It will warm the earth’s surface as more lava is released by the volcanic eruption.
  • It will warm the earth’s surface as more heat is trapped by the dust particles.
  • It will cool the earth’s surface as more snow will fall with the presence of more condensation nuclei.
  • It will cool the earth’s surface as radiation from the sun is blocked from entering the atmosphere. – correct

What is the upward movement of cold water from the ocean depths called?

  • El Niño
  • upwelling – correct
  • global warming
  • La Niña

El Niño begins with which of the following?

  • heavy mudslides in California and tornadoes in Florida
  • the westward movement of winds and currents in the Pacific
  • the eastward movement of winds and currents in the Pacific – correct
  • upwelling of cold ocean water

What impact does El Niño have on the fishing industry?

  • Nutrients no longer come to the surface, so fish die or migrate. – correct
  • Fishermen are unable to fish with the intense winds and currents.
  • An increase in the number of sea birds depletes the fish supply.
  • Ocean temperatures are too warm for some fish.

Areas such as Australia and Indonesia will experience heavier than normal rains during which of the following?

  • ice ages
  • La Niña – correct
  • El Niño
  • interglacial period

Why is the surface temperature of Venus higher than it is on Mercury?

  • Mercury rotates.
  • Venus is closer to the sun.
  • Mercury is too small.
  • The greenhouse effect is operating on Venus. – correct

In the Northern Hemisphere, a wind blowing from the south to the north will cause a current of water in which direction?

  • east – correct
  • south
  • north
  • west

Off the coast of Ecuador, cold, nutrient-rich water rises from below.

Which of the following best describes this current?

  • coastal upwelling – correct
  • downwelling
  • thermohaline current
  • geostrophic current

The waters off the coast of France are cold.

Which of the following is the best explanation?

  • The gyre rotates counterclockwise, removing warm water from the south.
  • The gyre rotates clockwise, removing warm water from the north.
  • The gyre rotates clockwise, bringing cold water from the north. – correct
  • The gyre rotates counterclockwise, bringing cold water from the south.

Which of the following has a definite pattern of variation with respect to latitude?

  • pH
  • temperature – correct
  • density
  • salinity

Look at the diagram of sea-surface temperatures.

In which of the following areas would you expect to find the highest salinity? 

Mid Atlantic Highest Salinity, Ocean Weather Climate, quiztutors.com
  • the North Atlantic
  • the Antarctic Ocean
  • the mid-Atlantic – correct
  • the Arctic Sea

According to the density profile shown here, at which depth would you find the coolest, saltiest waters? 

Density Coolest at depth, saltiest waters, Ocean Weather Climate, quiztutors.com
  • depth A
  • depth B
  • depth C – correct
  • You cannot tell from this graph.

Which explanation best describes the development of a wave?

  • The air mixes with the water to produce a wave.
  • Wind blows water along in one direction, thereby causing it to move great distances.
  • Friction between the moving air and the underlying water imparts energy, which causes the water to move horizontally great distances.
  • Friction between the moving air and the underlying water imparts energy, which causes the water to move in a circular motion, but the energy moves great distances. – correct

Which of the following explanations would account for Iceland’s climate if there were no surface currents?

  • Iceland would become drier and warmer.
  • Iceland would become drier and colder. – correct
  • Iceland would be wetter and warmer.
  • Iceland would become wetter and colder.

The western shoreline of a continent in the Northern Hemisphere runs directly in a north-south direction.

Prevailing winds blowing from the __________ will produce coastal upwelling.

Which word best completes the sentence?

  • north
  • east
  • south
  • west – correct

Two divers are diving in clear ocean water at a depth of 175 m. One diver shows a white marker board to the other with writing on it.

What color will the marker board appear to be?

  • red
  • violet
  • blue – correct
  • orange

Which of the following drives global thermohaline (conveyor belt) circulation?

  • changes in wind direction and velocity
  • changes in gravity
  • changes in density – correct
  • changes in pH

Which of the following changes on a daily basis?

  • a shore
  • a beach
  • a coast
  • a shoreline – correct

Which of the following is important in accumulating and removing sands that result in shifting barrier islands?

  • tides
  • geostrophic currents
  • rip currents
  • longshore currents – correct

Which of the following factors interact to create currents that are 50 m deep?

  • temperature, gravity, and the Coriolis effect
  • density, temperature, and salinity
  • wind, friction, and the Coriolis effect – correct
  • wind, temperature, and salinity

Which of the following gases gets added to seawater primarily by geological processes?

  • nitrogen
  • argon
  • oxygen
  • methane – correct

A pycnocline is a boundary between changing regions of which of the following properties?

  • salinity
  • density – correct
  • temperature
  • sound velocity

Where would you find the coldest, saltiest waters in the oceans?

  • deep zone – correct
  • surface-mixed zone
  • pelagic zone
  • transition zone

Which of the following conditions will produce the largest waves?

  • weak, short duration winds in a small fetch
  • strong, short duration winds in a small fetch
  • strong, long duration winds in a large fetch – correct
  • weak, long duration winds in a large fetch

Which statement best describes the ocean floor?

  • It is mostly flat, with little distinguishing features.
  • It is varied and includes features such as submarine canyons, atolls, and mid-ocean ridges. – correct
  • It is mostly covered with undersea mountain ranges.
  • It is varied and includes mostly undersea volcanoes and seamounts.

Which bathymetric technique differentiates between multiple layers of the ocean bottom?

  • sounding
  • sonar
  • radar altimetry
  • seismic reflection – correct

Submarine canyons are usually found in which region?

  • ocean trench
  • ocean ridge
  • ocean basin floor
  • continental margin – correct

Marine organisms that are euryhaline would most likely be found in which environment?

  • coastal estuary – correct
  • open ocean
  • deep ocean
  • hydrothermal vent

Where might you expect to find the most marine organisms?

  • shallow waters of the Caribbean Sea – correct
  • deep waters of the North Atlantic Ocean
  • deep waters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean
  • deep waters of Antarctic Ocean

A significant life-limiting factor in the ocean depths would include which of the following?

  • carbon sources
  • temperature – correct
  • availability of detritus
  • coastal upwelling

The pelagic zone is best defined as which of the following?

  • the deep ocean
  • the intertidal zone only
  • the benthic zone only
  • all the open water of the ocean – correct

Warm waters rich in marine life would be classified as which of the following zones?

  • neritic – correct
  • abyssal
  • bathypelagic
  • the continental shelf

Light penetrates the ocean only to which of the following depths?

  • 20 m
  • 200 m – correct
  • 500 m
  • 2,000 m

Which of the following adaptations is best suited for life in the pelagic zone?

  • tubelike body shape
  • numerous legs
  • gas-filled bag or swim bladder – correct
  • hard shell

Which of the following habitats has a water level that changes with the tide?

  • deep oceanic layer
  • abyssal zone
  • salt marsh – correct
  • sublittoral zone

In which environment would you most likely find animals with chemosynthetic bacteria embedded in their tissues?

  • abyssal plain
  • hydrothermal vent community – correct
  • sublittoral zone
  • rocky intertidal

Resources from the ocean are found in many regions, but the majority of all resources are located in which of the following regions?

  • abyssal plain
  • deep ocean
  • pelagic zone
  • continental shelf – correct

What is one of the most common resources extracted from the ocean?

  • oil – correct
  • manganese
  • gold
  • coal

Which of the following technologies is useful for locating schools of commercial fish?

  • sonar and satellite imagery – correct
  • computer modeling
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • water sampling

You would probably use seismic, sonar, and satellite technologies to locate which of the following resources?

  • salt
  • sand
  • natural gas – correct
  • manganese

Two divers are swimming in clear ocean water at a depth of 150 m. The first diver is wearing a white wetsuit.

When the second diver sees the first diver at that depth, which of the following colors would he see?

  • violet
  • blue – correct
  • orange
  • red

The Salinas River empties into the Pacific Ocean and cuts into the continental shelf, thereby forming which of the following features?

  • submarine canyon – correct
  • continental margin
  • guyot
  • oceanic ridge

When the earth, moon, and sun are in a line, the moon’s gravity and the sun’s gravity work together.

Which tide is experienced when this happens?

  • neap tide
  • spring tide – correct
  • low tide
  • high tide

Which of the following is a region with steep undersea mountains and deep valleys?

  • continental margin
  • ocean trench
  • ocean basin floor
  • ocean ridge – correct

In which environment would you find dolphins?

  • sublittoral
  • pelagic – correct
  • rocky shore
  • abyssal

Glue secreted by seaweed or barnacles is an adaption to which of the following environments?

  • shallow oceanic
  • rocky intertidal – correct
  • sublittoral
  • deep ocean

A cold-tolerant and salt-tolerant type of crab would likely be found in which part of the ocean?

  • polar zone
  • surface-mixed zone
  • deep zone – correct
  • transition zone

A halocline is a boundary between changing regions of which of the following properties?

  • salinity – correct
  • density
  • sound velocity
  • temperature

Which of the following currents has a great impact on reshaping the shoreline?

  • tidal current
  • longshore current – correct
  • flood current
  • ebb current

Which of the following is responsible for deep ocean circulation?

  • density differences – correct
  • friction
  • wind
  • Coriolis force

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