Earth Sphere and Earthquake – Rock Parts

Earth Sphere and Earthquake – Rock Parts

In this chapter we discuss parts of rock, earth sphere and earthquake.


What does an earth scientist study?

  • farming methods
  • machines
  • oceans – correct
  • animal cells

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Which of the following provides evidence that has helped earth scientists determine the age of the earth more precisely?

  • earth’s distance from the sun
  • helium dating
  • radioactive dating – correct
  • tree rings

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Which of the following is an important part of scientific methods?

  • making hypotheses – correct
  • teaching others
  • traveling to distant places
  • using calculators

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Why study earth science?

  • to cure certain diseases
  • to predict planetary changes – correct
  • to reduce pollution from cars
  • to understand how plants reproduce

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In 1650, an individual calculated that the earth was about 6,000 years old. Since then, what has happened to scientists’ estimates of the earth’s age?

  • Scientists now think the earth is much younger.
  • Scientists now think the earth is much older. correct
  • Scientist now are less sure about the earth’s age.
  • Scientists agree with the estimate from 1650.

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Mountains are part of which earth sphere?

  • geosphere – correct
  • atmosphere
  • cryosphere
  • hydrosphere

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According to the ideas of William Smith, which rock layers are the same age?

  • layers with similar fossils – correct
  • layers made of the same organic compounds
  • layers with different fossils
  • layers of the same rock

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What is in the hydrosphere?

  • planets
  • birds
  • rivers – correct
  • land masses

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What is the cryosphere?

  • molten rock
  • earth’s ice – correct
  • sedimentary rock
  • earth’s crust

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How can the geosphere affect the atmosphere?

  • by a tidal wave
  • by a volcanic eruption – correct
  • by a earthquake
  • by a rainstorm

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A major concern about increasing global temperatures is that a large portion of polar ice could detach and melt into the ocean. If this happened, which two spheres would interact?

  • cryosphere and hydrosphere – correct
  • cryosphere and biosphere
  • geosphere and atmosphere
  • hydrosphere and atmosphere

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Which scientist developed a new model of planetary motion?

  • Kepler – correct
  • Darwin
  • Kelvin
  • Rutherford

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Is this statement true or false?

The cryosphere represents all living things.

  • true
  • false – correct

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Rain causing streams to flood would be an example of an interaction between which two spheres?

  • biosphere and hydrosphere
  • atmosphere and cryosphere
  • hydrosphere and geosphere
  • hydrosphere and atmosphere – correct

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What is the role of the ozone?

  • It protects earth’s surface from dangerous radiation. – correct
  • It is the source of rain clouds.
  • It retains heat energy given up by water.
  • It reflects the sun’s energy.

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From the deepest to the surface, what are the parts of the earth’s interior?

  • core→crust→mantle
  • crust→mantle→core
  • core→mantle→crust – correct
  • mantle→crust→core

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What is necessary for a convection cell to be set up in a fluid?

  • changes in density
  • thermal gradient
  • thermal gradient and changes in density – correct

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What evidence did Alfred Wegener use to support his theory of continental drift?

  • coastline fits between different continents only
  • coastline fits between different continents, similar rocks and fossils on different continents – correct
  • Wegener had no evidence, which is why his theory was rejected.

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Is this statement true or false?

In a convection cell, cold dense material rises, while hot, less dense material sinks.

  • true
  • false – correct

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Is this statement true or false?

The plates of the earth’s crust may also contribute to maintaining upper mantle convection.

  • true – correct
  • false

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A central crack forms where a thin section of earth’s crust breaks and molten rock seeps out. Which geologic feature would result from this?

  • earthquake
  • volcano – correct
  • glacier
  • shoreline

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Which geologic feature occurs at a convergent boundary?

  • an aperture
  • a rill
  • an ocean ridge
  • an earthquake – correct

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What does the theory of plate tectonics say about the earth’s surface?

  • The earth is broken into many pieces. – correct
  • The earth is one solid piece.
  • The earth is mostly covered in water.
  • The earth is very thick.

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Plate tectonics can help to explain which of the following?

  • ocean currents
  • trenches – correct
  • weather systems
  • land erosion

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Alfred Wegener suggested that earth’s continents are moving. Which evidence supports this theory?

  • close geometric correspondence of continental coastlines – correct
  • similarities in human fossils
  • different types of rocks on opposite coasts
  • revolution of the Earth

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What occurs when the earth’s plates slide past each other?

  • an ocean trench
  • a river
  • an earthquake – correct
  • a volcano

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How did Wegener explain the fact that ancient horse fossils showed up on different continents?

  • The fossils were moved by humans.
  • The horses swam between the two continents.
  • The continents were at one time joined together. correct
  • The fossils must be of different species.

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What makes plates move?

  • radiation from the sun
  • heat convection within the earth – correct
  • movement of ice sheets
  • cold air currents on earth’s surface

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When mantle plumes (or hot spots) erupt underneath moving plates, which geologic feature results?

  • divergent zones
  • trenches
  • volcanic islands – correct
  • earthquakes

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There are some areas of the world where more than two plates react in complex ways. One example of this is near Spain where three plates are moving together. What do we call these areas?

  • plate boundary zones – correct
  • the Ring of Fire
  • continental shelf zones
  • trench zones

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Use the following diagram to answer this question.
In the diagram of the earth’s interior, which part drives movements of the plates?

Earth Sphere and Earthquake - Rock Parts
Cross-section diagram of earth with labels A B C D showing different layers of the planet
  • A
  • B
  • C – correct
  • D

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Use the following diagram to answer this question.

What is the name of layer D?

Earth Sphere and Earthquake - Rock Parts
Cross-section diagram of earth with labels A B C D showing different layers of the planet
  • the mantle
  • the cryosphere
  • the crust – correct
  • the inner core

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Which of the following can cause earthquakes?

  • buildup of magma
  • extreme rock deformation
  • hard collisions between tectonic plates
  • buildup of pressure between tectonic plates – correct

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Which process forms ridges and valleys?

  • volcanoes
  • folding, uplift, and erosion – correct
  • exposed batholiths
  • oceanic-oceanic covergence

——————

A displacement between two bodies of rock is called __________.

  • a fault – correct
  • an anticline
  • a fold
  • a syncline

—————–

What does an oceanic-oceanic convergence give rise to?

  • volcanic island arcs – correct
  • valleys and ridges
  • folded mountains
  • continental volcanic mountains

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Which observation supported Wegener’s theory of continental drift?

  • Identical fossils were found on continents that were far apart. – correct
  • The earth’s rotation could provide enough force to move the continents apart.
  • Different continents had different rock types.
  • Each continent had mountain ranges.

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Which feature do you usually see when tectonic plates move apart?

  • earthquakes
  • volcanoes
  • mountains
  • new ocean ridges and seafloor – correct

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What happens in a convection cell?

  • Hot, less dense material moves horizontally, while cold, dense material moves vertically.
  • Hot, less dense material rises and cold dense material also rises.
  • Cold, dense material sinks while hot, less dense material rises. – correct
  • Cold, dense material moves horizontally, while hot, less dense material moves vertically.

—————–

In the diagram of the earth’s interior, which part causes the diffraction of P waves made by earthquakes?
Earth Sphere and Earthquake - Rock Parts
  • A
  • B – correct
  • C
  • D

——————–

In the diagram of the earth’s interior, where does the material that forms volcanoes originate?
Earth Sphere and Earthquake - Rock Parts
Cross-section diagram of earth with labels A B C D showing different layers of the planet
  • A
  • B
  • C – correct
  • D

————–

In the diagram of the earth’s interior, which part is the densest?
Earth Sphere and Earthquake - Rock Parts
  • A – correct
  • B
  • C
  • D

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The sides of a composite-cone volcano may be interrupted with which feature?

  • craters- no response givencraters
  • fumaroles – correct
  • calderas
  • conduits

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Which material erupted from volcanoes is important in acid rain?

  • carbon monoxide
  • carbon dioxide
  • ash
  • sulfur dioxide – correct

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What type of volcano would you find along a convergent boundary?

  • shield
  • rift
  • composite cone – correct
  • fissure

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You have a geological site associated with earthquake activity and a mountain range. You look offshore, but do not find any trenches. What type of boundary are you dealing with?

  • divergent boundary undersea
  • oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary
  • continental-continental convergent boundary – correct
  • oceanic-continental convergent boundary

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The S-P interval of seismic waves recorded at a seismometer is 8 minutes. Approximately how far away is the earthquake’s epicenter from the seismometer? [equation: (S-P interval) = 0.00146 (distance to epicenter)]

  • 8 km
  • 550 km
  • less than 1 km
  • 5,500 km – correct

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Where did the gold of the Inca civilization come from?

  • transform plate boundaries
  • continental-continental convergence
  • oceanic-continental convergence – correct
  • divergent plate boundaries

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What is the illustration an example of?
Cross-section illustration of a dormant volcano and an active volcano
  • oceanic-continental convergence boundary
  • hot spot – correct
  • continental-continental convergence boundary
  • oceanic-oceanic convergence boundary

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What is the illustration an example of?
Cross-section illustration of an active volcano with molten lava and smoke erupting from it
  • transform boundary
  • continental-continental convergence boundary
  • divergent boundary
  • oceanic-oceanic convergence boundary – correct

—————–

In the illustration, which site is an example of a trench?

A composite of four images showing, 
magma below earth surface, a dormant volcano and an active volcano, earthquakes and magma flowing onto the surface but no large volcano and a fault in the surface due to earthquake
  • A
  • B
  • C – correct
  • D

——————-

In the illustration, which site is an oceanic spreading center?
A composite of four images showing, 
magma below earth surface, a dormant volcano and an active volcano, earthquakes and magma flowing onto the surface but no large volcano and a fault in the surface due to earthquake
  • A – correct
  • B
  • C
  • D

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In the illustration, which site indicates a fault?
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 1107676-3809064_num16.jpg
  • A
  • B
  • C – correct
  • D

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In the illustration, at which site would you expect to find basaltic magma eruptions without volcanoes?
A composite of four images showing, 
magma below earth surface, a dormant volcano and an active volcano, earthquakes and magma flowing onto the surface but no large volcano and a fault in the surface due to earthquake
  • A – correct
  • B
  • C
  • D

—————-

Which of the following features was not created by subduction?

  • Japan
  • Alps – correct
  • Andes
  • Mariana Trench

—————

Paleomagnetic evidence was used to confirm which of the following hypotheses?

  • hot spots
  • transform boundaries
  • subduction
  • seafloor spreading – correct

—————–

Which process forms ridges and valleys?

  • volcanoes
  • folding, uplift, and erosion – correct
  • exposed batholiths
  • oceanic-oceanic covergence

—————-

A displacement between two bodies of rock is called __________.

  • a fault – correct
  • an anticline
  • a fold
  • a syncline

——————

What does an oceanic-oceanic convergence give rise to?

  • volcanic island arcs – correct
  • valleys and ridges
  • folded mountains
  • continental volcanic mountains

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