DNA Enzyme & Gene Transfer – Microbiology

DNA Enzyme & Gene Transfer – Microbiology

This quiz is about DNA enzyme and gene transfer – Microbiology.


An exergonic reaction

only occurs in heterotrophs.

is the synthesis of large carbohydrates.

is glucose breakdown.- correct

does not occur in anaerobic cellular respiration.

is ADP + P combining to form ATP.


What type of organism uses glucose for its carbon source and light for its energy needs?

none of the other answers is correct

chemoautotroph

chemoheterotroph

photoheterotroph

photoautotroph – correct


What type of organism can use carbon dioxide for its carbon source and hydrogen, sulfur, or nitrogen for its energy needs?

photoheterotroph

chemoheterotroph

chemoautotroph – correct

photoautotroph

none of the other answers is correct


Which describes a molecule that had an electron removed?

anabolized

oxidized – correct

biosynthesized

electronated

reduced


Which are electron carrier molecules?

NADH, FADH2 and ATP

NADH only

ATP only

FADH2 only

NADH and FADH2 only – correct


Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in

acetyl CoA synthesis and glycolysis.

glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport system

Krebs cycle and electron transport system.

glycolysis and Krebs cycle. – correct

glycolysis and electron transport system.


The substance acted on by an enzyme is called the

substrate.- correct

none of the other answers is correct

product.

intermediate.

metabolite.


An inactive enzyme that does not have its helper is called a(n):

coenzyme

catalyst

cofactor

holoenzyme

apoenzyme – correct


Which are inorganic molecules that bind to enzymes?

cofactors.- correct

catalysts.

holoenzymes

apoenzymes.

coenzymes.


Which best describes the type of enzyme regulation where too much of the end product from a metabolic pathway shuts down the pathway?

feedback inhibition – correct

coenzyme activation

allosteric activation

holoenzyme inhibition

competitive inhibition


Glycolysis produces a net gain of which of:

two ATP, two NADH, and four pyruvates

two ATP, two NADH, and two pyruvates – correct

four ATP, two NADH

four ATP, two pyruvates

two ATP, four NADH, and two pyruvates


All are products of the Krebs cycle except:

FADH2

NADH

Pyruvate – correct

ATP

carbon dioxide


All can be the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration except?

O2 – correct

NO3

CO32-

metals

SO42-


In E.coli, how many molecules of ATP can be generated from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O?

34 – correct

38

4

2

76


As the electron transport system carriers move electrons by redox reactions, they actively pump _____ across the membrane maintaining a concentration gradient.

phosphate

NADH

oxygen

ATP

hydrogen ions – correct


Which best defines chemiosmosis?

the series of reactions that regenerate oxaloacetate

the movement of electrons from one acceptor to another

the disruption of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which dissipates energy

the breakdown of glucose to produce two pyruvates

the movement of hydrogen ions through ATP synthase – correct


A DNA nucleotide contains:

a ribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

a ribose sugar and a nitrogenous base

a deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogenous base

a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base – correct


What is the formula for alcoholic fermentation?

Glucose + O2 ==> ethyl alcohol + 2 CO2 + 38 ATP

Glucose ==> 2 ethyl alcohol + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP – correct

Glucose ==> 2 ethyl alcohol + CO2 + 38 ATP

Glucose ==> ethyl alcohol + CO2 + 2 ATP

Glucose ==> 2 lactic acid + 2 ATP


Which about nitrogen fixation is true?

None is true about nitrogen fixation

Is the same as denitrification

Involves creating ammonia (NH3) from atmospheric nitrogen gas – correct

Decomposers perform to create nitrites and nitrates

Involves recycling N2 back into the atmosphere


Which complementary base pair combinations can occur in DNA?

A and U

A and G

A and T – correct

A and C

All of these base pair combinations occur in DNA.


Are statements are true except:

RNA and DNA both contain covalent phosphodiester bonds between sugars and bases.

DNA is usually double stranded and RNA is usually single stranded.

RNA contains uracil and DNA contains thymine.

DNA is used for shorter-term functions than RNA.- correct

RNA is usually less stable than DNA.


Which enzymes help supercoil DNA so it fits into a cell?

helicases

polymerases

primases

topoisomerases – correct

spliceosomes


The enzyme that unwinds DNA before eukaryotic replication:

DNA isomerase

primase

DNA ligase

DNA helicase – correct

DNA polymerase


All are true about transcription except:

Occurs before translation.

Requires a template DNA strand.

Requires RNA polymerase.

Occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm.- correct

Must occur before protein synthesis.


The complementary RNA copy of the DNA gene segment TAGTCGACAGGT is:

AUCAGCUGUCCA – correct

ATCTGCTCTCCA

UTGUCGTGTCCU

TAGTCGACAGGT

UTCUGCTCTGGU


Segments of a gene that are expressed in the protein are called a/an

promoter regions.- correct

exons.

introns.

operators.

operons.


How many nucleotides are in an anticodon?

6

5

2

4

3 – correct


The location of _________ is the cytoplasm for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

transcription

translation – correct

conjugation

transduction

DNA replication


The minimum change in a DNA molecule that can cause a mutation is

one amino acid

one base.- correct

DNA does not change in a mutation

three bases.

two bases.


A bacteriophage transfers DNA of the previous host to the current host. This is an example of

creation of an Hfr cell.

transformation.

conjugation.

transduction.- correct

None of the other answers is correct.


Transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring is called:

transposition

translation

vertical gene transfer – correct

horizontal gene transfer

phage transfer


Elements of DNA known as “jumping genes” are called

transformations.

transposons.- correct

introns.

exons.

transductions.


The lactose repressor protein binds to which region of a gene?

structural gene

regulatory gene

operator – correct

terminator

promoter


Which is a characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but not eukaryotic genomes?

includes mitochondrion and chloroplast DNA

enclosed in a nuclear membrane

linear chromosomes

typically consist of a few to several chromosomes

circular chromosome and possibly plasmids – correct


Which nucleotide base is in DNA but not RNA?

cytosine

guanine

thymine – correct

adenine

uracil


Which nucleotide base is in RNA but not DNA?

cytosine

adenine

guanine

uracil – correct

thymine


A DNA nucleotide contains the sugar _______ and a RNA nucleotide contains the sugar ________.

glucose, ribose

deoxyribose, glucose

ribose, deoxyribose

ribose, glucose

deoxyribose, ribose – correct


Match the term with its description

DNA Replication

same as duplication or synthesis of DNA – correct

DNA Helicase

enzyme that unwinds DNA double helix – correct

DNA Polymerase III

enzyme that adds complementary nucleotides – correct

Semi-Conservative

new chromosomes contain one old & one new strand – correct

Complementary dsDNA bases              

Adenine : Thymine and Guanine : Cytosine – correct


Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and cytoplasm for prokaryotic cells

Transcription – correct

Translation


Occurs in the cytoplasm for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

Transcription

Translation – correct


Uses DNA as the template strand

Transcription – correct

Translation


Creates a protein

Transcription

Translation – correct


Creates an RNA molecule

Transcription – correct

Translation


Requires a promotor region for RNA polymerase to bind

Translation

Transcription – correct


Occurs at the ribosome

Translation – correct

Transcription


If the DNA template sequence is: CTA GCA TGC CAT.

What is the complementary DNA sequence?

GUT CGT UCG CTU

GAU GCU AGC CUA

GAT GCT AGC CTA

GAU CGU ACG GUA

GAT CGT ACG GTA – correct


If the DNA template sequence is: CTA GCA TGC CAT.

What is the complementary mRNA sequence?

GAT CGT ACG GTA

GAU GCU AGC CUA

GUT CGT UCG CTU

GAU CGU ACG GUA – correct

GAT GCT AGC CTA


If the DNA template sequence is: CTA GCA TGC CAT.

What are the 4 tRNA sequences?

CAU GCU AGC CUA

CUT GCT UGC CTU

CAT GCT AGC CTA

CUA GCA UGC CAU – correct

GAU CGU ACG GUA


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