Medication – Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

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Chapter 37: Respiratory Drug Test, Medication, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications

The key terms in this Pharmacology course include Respiratory Drug Test, Medication, Lactose, Patient, Nurse, Pharmacology for Nurses: Practical Applications


Before administering an LTRA medication, the nurse would assess the patient for allergies to which substance? (Select all that apply.)

Chlorhexidine

Lactose

Povidone

Cellulose

Latex


The nurse receives laboratory values for a patient with a theophylline level of 14 mcg/mL. How does the nurse interpret this theophylline level?

Therapeutic

Subtherapeutic

Life threatening

Toxic

The therapeutic theophylline level is 10 to 20 mcg/mL.


The nurse is providing care to a patient prescribed a nonselective adrenergic agonist bronchodilator. Which condition documented in the patient’s medical history would alert the nurse to question this medication order?

Coronary artery disease

Thrombocytopenia

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Nonselective adrenergic agonist bronchodilators stimulate beta1 receptors in the heart and beta2 receptors in the lungs. Stimulation of beta1 receptors can increase heart rate and contractility, increasing oxygen demand. This increased oxygen demand may lead to angina or myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease.


Which statement by a patient best indicates an understanding of the teaching on flunisolide?

“I will take two puffs to treat an acute asthma attack.”

“I will wash the plastic inhaler casing once a month.”

“I will rinse my mouth with water after each use.”

“I will not use my albuterol inhaler while I am taking AeroBid.”

Flunisolide is an inhaled corticosteroid. Rinsing the mouth immediately after each use of the inhaler or nebulizer will help prevent oral candidal infections. It is not used to treat an acute asthma attack and should be taken with the patient’s bronchodilator medications. The plastic inhaler casing is washed in warm, soapy water every week.


The nurse is teaching a patient about the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) drugs such as zafirlukast. Which statement would be appropriate by the nurse?

“It will take about 3 or 4 weeks before you notice a therapeutic effect.”

“Increase fiber and fluid in your diet to prevent the common adverse effect of constipation.”

“This medication works by preventing the inflammation that causes your asthma attack.”

“Take the medication when you are short of breath and begin wheezing.”

LTRAs drugs block the inflammatory response of leukotrienes and thus the trigger for asthma attacks. Response to these drugs is usually noticed within 1 week. They are not used to treat acute asthma attacks. Diarrhea, not constipation, is a common adverse effect of montelukast and zafirlukast.


The nurse is providing discharge teaching to a patient receiving a beta-agonist bronchodilator. What side effect would the nurse emphasize the patient needs to report?

Nonproductive cough

Sedation

Hypoglycemia

Tachycardia

A beta-agonist bronchodilator stimulates the beta receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in tachycardia, bronchodilation, hyperglycemia, and increased alertness.


What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute respiratory disorders?

They stimulate the immune system.

They directly dilate the bronchi.

They decrease inflammation.

They increase gas exchange in the alveoli.

Corticosteroids can suppress the immune system. They do not directly affect bronchodilation but rather prevent bronchoconstriction as a response to inflammation.