Tribes & Heritage – US & World History

Tribes & Heritage – US & World History

These chapters discuss the history of tribes and their heritage found in US and the rest of the world.


Shared heritage:
Were sweat houses used by men only or both men and women?

Men only


Shared heritage:
Religions involved:
. myths . creation stories
and

Shamanism

Influence of nature


Shaman

The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.


T/F: Shaman usually goes into a trance during rituals or when practicing divination & healing.

True


Shared heritage:
Ceremonies dealt with turning points of life and rites of passage such as:

Birth
Death
Puberty
Marriage
Hunting


Shared heritage:
The fables, moral tales, included what animals?

Regional animals and natural phenomena:
. coyote . raven
. bear . snake
. thunder


Shared heritage:
Roles were sex differentiated:

Men: hunt, fish

Women: gather food & materials, killed small game


Shared heritage:
Was the oral story tradition used?

Yes, by all California Indians


Northern California tribes

1. Yurok
2. Hupa
3. Modoc
4. Pomo


Central California tribes:

1. Maidu
2. Miwok


Coastal tribes:

1. Coastal Miwok
2. Esselen
3. Chumash


Desert tribes:

1. Mojave
2. Serrano


Sierra Nevada tribes:

1. Miwok
2. Mono


Material belongs found to be similar amongst the California Indians:

1. Subsistence agricultural implements
2. Receptacles
3. Musical instruments
4. Money


Examples of agricultural implements

* Mortar & pestle
* Metate
* Grinding slab
* Digging stick


Examples of receptacles

* Baskets–most famous
* Pottery
* Wood
* Stone bowls


Examples of musical instruments

* Drum
* Rattle
* Flute
* Rasp
* Bow


Examples of money

* Clam disks and Olivella shells


Spanish Conquest

Christopher Columbus convinced the King of Spain to sponsor his voyage to Asia by the Atlantic Ocean, and thus found the Americas. The Spanish took control of the Indians and began converting them to Catholicism. Soon, the Spanish slave trade started. Disease and malnutrition decimated the Indian population.


The Seven Cities of Cibola

The place were mythical North American towns supposedly so wealthy that streets were paved with gold.with Amazon like women who used golden weapons.


Why did Spain presume possession of California but pay it little attention?

Spain focussed on richer parts of empire in
. Mexico . Peru . Phillipines


How did the Spanish end up exploring the Baja peninsula?

In 1530s Cortes was in search of Seven Cities of Cibola


What was Spain’s reason to explore?

Conquest & Wealth


Cabrillo discovered what 4 spots?

1. San Diego Bay
2. Santa Barbara Islands
3. Point Conception
4. Point Reyes


What kind of passage was Cabrillo searching for?

A water passage between the Pacific and Atlantic

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer/pirate who circumnavigated the globe from 1577 to 1580 and was sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold


What inspired Spain to finally colonize California?

Drake’s claim in 1579 and the threat by England


What were the next 2 safe harbors discovered by Spain at this time?

Monterey and San Francisco


Did Spain do much more colonization of California after finding Monterey & San Francisco?

Not so much for the next 100 years


What was Spain’s response to Russian explorations?

Renewed Spain’s interest in colonizing California


Russia was interest in what “product”

Fur


Fort Ross

Ivan Kuskov and a group of fur trapper built this fort near San Francisco., a trading post, near Bodega Bay, built by Russians in 1812. It was a base for sea otter hunters. they sold tools in exchange for salt, wheat, and other foods


Russian Fur interests in Alaska

Pushed southward


Who else, beside Spain, viewed Russian exploration as a threat?

American government


What was the US government’s response to the Russian threat?

Monroe Doctrine


What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?

Restricted European colonization of the Americas


How did Spain react to potential Russian, British, American presence?

Established presidios & pueblos in valleys around
San Francisco Bay


What’s a presidio?

Military fort


What’s a pueblo?

Small settlement


Where did the Jesuits establish their 5 permanent settlements?

Baja in the early 1700’s


Who established the missions along the El Camino Real?

Franciscan Friars


When did the Franciscan Friars complete the last mission?

1823


Where is the southern-most mission?

San Diego


Where is the northern-most mission?

Sonoma


How far between the 21 missions?

One day’s journey


List 3 reasons Spain & the Franciscans built their missions.

1. Convert Indians to Christianity
2. Establish cultural & agricultural centers
3. Populate Alta California for Spain


How did Spain and the Church subdue the Indians?

“Both the sword and the cross were used to subdue the Indians”


Who is credited with developing the mission system?

Father Serra


Father Serra

The Spanish missionary who founded 21 missions in California, in 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first of the chain.


How are Serra’s lasting contributions perceived?

Serra’s contributions are controversial


What changed in the mission system in the 1830s?

The mission system began a secularization process


What was the result of the secularization of the mission system?

Most mission property was privately owned


Mission Summary:
3 Purposes for building the missions

1. Create permanent, self-sufficient
Spanish settlements
2. Defend Spanish empire in Mexico
3. Convert indigenous people


Mission Summary:
3 Characteristics of the organization of the missions

1. Locate in areas w/high concentration
native population
2. All buildings built with materials on hand
3. Each mission cultivated food


What foodstuffs were cultivated?

CerealGrainsGrapes
FruitOlives
* Livestock


Mission Summary:
3 Positive Outcomes

1. Provided presidios w/food & goods
2. Some enjoyed great economic success
3. Gave Spanish a foothold in California


Mission Summary:
3 Negative Outcomes

1. Fatally exposed Indians to European diseases
2. Destroyed native culture
3. Exploited indigenous labor force


The Land-Grant System

The Spanish, and later the Méxican government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos. Devoted to raising cattle and sheep, the owners of the ranchos attempted to pattern themselves after the landed gentry of Spain. Their workers included Californian Native Americans who had learned to speak Spanish, many of them former Mission residents. The ranchos established land-use patterns that are recognizable in the California of today.


Ranchos

Owned by Californios, huge properties in California worked by Native Americanss in return for food, shelter


Jedidiah Smith

Mountain man, trapper, and trader known for exploring the Rockies. He opened up the west with his discovery of the South Pass, which was wider and less steep than previous passes and which allowed wagon trails to run through it.


Kit Carson

United States frontiersman who guided Fremont’s expeditions in the 1840s and served as a Union general in the Civil War (1809-1868), an American frontiersman. He gained notoriety for his role as John C. Fremont’s guide in the American West.


John C. Fremont

Commissioned by the Senate to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth, , Dashing explorer/adventurer who led the overthrow of Mexican rule in California after war broke out


Mexican American War

The Mexican-American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas. Mexico claimed ownership of Texas as a breakaway province and refused to recognize the secession and subsequent military victory by Texas in 1836.


The Bear Flag Revolt

A short-lived independence rebellion precipitated by American settlers in California’s Sacramento Valley against Mexican authorities. The Americans issued a declaration of independence and hoisted a flag, white with a grizzly bear facing a red star. The innsurectionists elected Frémont to head the “Republic of California.” The Republic was quick to fall. Commandor Sloat claimed California for the United States, and replaced the bear flag with the American flag.


The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago

Ended the War with Mexico and included the Mexican Cession transfer of California and the future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah to U.S. control.


James W. Marshall

One of Sutter’s employees; detected flakes of heavy yellow metal at the botton of a wooden canal used to divert water from the American River


Sutter’s Fort

John Sutter was an immigrant that settled in California. He started a settlement called New Helvetia. he built a fort on land that the governer gave him, and people who crossed the Sierra Nevada sometimes ended up here.


John Sutter

An immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.


Gold Fever

The rush to secure gold, especially alluvial gold, in order to acquire immediate riches and the associated social status. New flood into Golden state, soon apply to become free state, tip the balance, set off sectional debate on slavery


The Compromise of 1850

Compromise that made . . .
1. California admitted as a free state
2. Fugitive Slave Law
3. Slave Trade banned in Washington
4.Popular Sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah


Transcontinental Railroad

Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west. Chinese on the Cental Pacific and Irish on the Union Pacific.


Railroad’s Big Four

The Big Four was the name popularly given to the chief entrepreneurs in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad, the western portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States.However, the four of them preferred to be known as “The Associates”. Controlled the railroad industry and California Politics


Bank of California

During the California economic depression of the 1870s, the collapse of this further weakened the California economy.


Chinese Exclusion Act

Law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country, but did not prevent entry of those who had previously established U.S. residence


Anti Chinese Sentiment

Anti-Chinese sentiment only increased when the completion of the transcontinental railroad freed up 9,000 Chinese laborers, fueling the hostility of American workers who, like the miners before them, resented Chinese immigrants for the economic competition they presented and blamed them for the bad economy.


Chinese Immigrants

Chinese immigrants began arriving in America in significant numbers in the 1850s, most from the southern provinces of China where war, persecution and famine caused the deaths of millions. American businessmen actively sought Chinese laborers in mines and other industries, using them to provide much of the labor for building the transcontinental railroads. While the Chinese were first praised as diligent workers, praise later turned to hostility as the railroad was completed and competition for other jobs increased. Anti-Chinese political activity and violence erupted between 1880-1900 throughout the West, resulting in scores of deaths.


Workingmans Party

Nativist, Anti-Chinese, and anti Big Business.


California Land Boom 1880’s

The railroads ended the region’s isolation. The railroad made transportation cheaper and easier, causing a land boom in the 1880s. During the “Boom of the 80s,” thousands of farmers and opportunity seekers moved to southern California.


Yellow Peril

A supposed threat to the US posed by Japan and China. Fear of asian immigration and Japan’s rising military power.


Lincoln Roosevelt League

a coalition party pushed through reforms and controlled the Republican Party.


Hiram Johnson

Progressive governor of California who broke the stranglehold of the Southern Pacific Railroad on the state’s politics


Initiative

Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters


Referendum

The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.


Recall

Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.


Railroad Commission

A full-time, three-member paid commission elected by the people to regulate oil and gas and some transportation entities


The Californian Alien Land Act

prohibited “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from owning agricultural land or possessing long-term leases over it, but permitted leases lasting up to three years. It affected the Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Korean immigrant farmers in California.


The Panama Canal

Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion; built by Roosevelt


California and WWI

Wages, production, manufactureing and commerce expanded rapidly. Real Estate Boom. Movies, oil and Agriculture thrived.


Upton Sinclair

Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.


Muckraker

A journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society


The Townsend Plan

proposed placing $200 of government funds per month in the hands of people aged 60 and older, with the requirements that the recipients be retired and spend the money within 30 days


California and WWIl

Manufacturing base was greatly increased by airplanes ships and other war products. California became the defense center of the nation.


Japanese Internment Camps

The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called “War Relocation Camps”, in the wake of Imperial Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor because they were perceived to be a threat to national safety.


The Watts Riot

The first of a series of racial disorders that hit cities throughout the United States in the summers of 1965-1967. they usually began with an arrest or a police raid that was followed by rumors of resistance and police brutality


Ceasar Chavez

Latino leader from 1962-1993 who organized the United Farm Workers to help migratory farm workers get better pay and working conditions


The United Farm Workers

A labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.


Proposition 13

Californians staged a “tax revolt” that slashed property taxes and forced painful cuts in government services


Silicon Valley

A region of western California southeast of San Francisco known for its high-tech design and manufacturing industries


Mount Whitney

The highest peak in the Sierra Nevada range in California (14,494 feet high)


California Topography

Drastic changes in topography across the state: rugged mountain peaks, fertile valleys, dense forests, ocean boundaries, and extensive deserts


California Geology

Evidences faulting, folding, alluvial and sedimentary deposition, and volcanic activity


The San Andreas Fault

This is the name for a famous transform boundary in California.


California Climate

-Southern California’s climate characterized as Mediterranean and is unique in the United States
-The state has many diverse microclimates, though generally the coastal climate is mild and the interior is much more extreme
-The interior basins have the most extreme temperatures


The Coast Ranges

-There are mountain ranges along the western coast of California, extending from the Klamath Mountains in the north (Oregon border region) to the southwestern section of the Sierra Nevada (Southern California)
-The San Andreas Fault system divides this region along a north/south axis
-The range is approx. 550 miles long
-The plant diversity ranges from giant redwoods in the north to chaparral in the south
-The mountains are a series of parallel ranges formed by sedimentary deposition uplifted by faulting and folding
-The climate of the Coast Ranges varies from low-pressure areas that produce fog and rain in the northern sections to a Mediterranean-type condition in the south


The Klamath Mountains

-Located in the northwestern corner of the states
-They are an extension of the Coast Ranges
-The mountains are rugged, steep, and in the 6,000- to 8,000-foot range
-The area receives heavy precipitation, and dense forests cover the mountains


The Sierra Nevada

The name of the mountain range that seperates California and Nevada. The snowy range. The highest mountains in California. Gold was discovered in the streams. Southern Cali is dependent on the rain from here. Rain shadow effect.


The Central Valley

-Separates the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range
-Extends from the northwest to the southeast for 400 miles and is an average of 50 miles wide
-The valley is a flat, sedimentary plain. The soil is fertile and makes the valley the major agricultural region of the state.
-60% of California’s farmland is located in the Central Valley
-A majority of the state;s water supply is caught in the Central Valley as runoff from the Sierra Nevada
-The Sacramento Delta, encompassing 1,200 square miles of waterways, is located where the Sacramento (south-flowing) and San Joaquin (north-flowing) rivers meet


The Basin and Range

-This extreme landscape of short, parallel mountain ranges and desert basins extends along the eastern border of California
—The northern section is part of a lava plateau
—The southern section is generally dry. The Mojave Desert is the major geographical feature in the south.
-The Northwest and Southwest Great Basin, the Northwestern Sonoran Desert, and the Salton Sea Trough are significant areas in this region
-Death Valley (in the Mojave Desert), the lowest point in the U.S., was formed by faulting (not erosion)
-The system extends in to Nevada and Utah
-Irrigation with water from the Colorado River has allowed large-scale farming in the Imperial and Coachella valleys


The Cascade Range

-Form the western mountain ranges
-The western slope of the Sierra Nevada borders the Central Valley of California
-The Coast Ranges form the western wall of the Central Valley


The Modoc Plateau

-The southern extreme of the Cascade Range is located in the northeastern corner of California. It extends 550 miles northward into Canada.
-The area is separate from the Sierra Nevada and is about 25 miles wide
-The Cascade Range mountains were formed exclusively by volcanic activity. Many, like Mt. Shasta (14,162 feet), are dormant or extinct volcanoes
-Lassen Peak is the largest plug-dome (filled with magma) volcano in the world
-The Modoc Plateau is a level tableland of volcanic origin


Lassen Peak

is the largest plug dome (filled with magma) volcano in the world.


The Transverse and Peninsular Ranges

-This area extends from Santa Barbara to San Diego
-The Transverse/Los Angeles ranges extend in an easterly (transverse) direction from the coast. (All other California ranges extend north and south.)
-These ranges include the Santa Ynez, Santa Monica, San Gabriel, and San Bernadino mountains
-The Los Angeles Basin is the state’s largest coastal basin and was formed by the alluvial deposition of soil from the surrounding mountain ranges
-The Penninsular ranges extend south from the San Bernadino Mountains in Baja California and from the Pacific Ocean east to the Salton Sea Trough
-The faulted eastern sections of the Peninsular ranges are characterized by sharp drop-offs. It is a complex region of active fault zones. Significant faults include the San Jacinto (near Palm Springs) and the Elsinore.


Aqueduct

A Man-Made channel constructed to convey water from one location to the other


Bear Flag Revolt

A brief attempt at the beginning of the Mexican-American War to establish an independent California Republic


Beshido

The code of the knights in feudal Japan Equivalent of chivalry in Europe


CA’s Mission System

A “Sacred expedition” 21 Missions – spaced 1 day’s travel apart El Camino Real (The Royal Road) New Spain wanted to settle California before the English/Russians did


Californios

Residents of the rancho system in CA just before the Mexican-American War. Mexican citizens who identified themselves more so as Californios than as Mexicans.


Caste

Social class based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privilege, profession or occupation


Central Valley Project (CVP)

Federal water project undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1935. Long term plan to effectively use water in CA’s Central Valley


Checks & Balances

Written into Constitution, cornerstones of our republic, involves all 3 branches of government, allows each branch to work as watchdog over others.


Circumnavigate

To sail completely around the Earth


Code of Hammurabi

The first known written legal code from ancient Babylon preceded Justinian Code by 2,000 years


Communism

Economic system State controls the means of production and distributes the profits


Conquistadores

Spanish explores who sought riches in Central & South America. Established colonies along the way.


Daimyo

Japanese Feudal Lord (Equivalent of Lord in Europe)

Democratic-Republican Party

One of the first 2 political parties in the USA led by Thomas Jefferson & James Madison. Opposed Federalist Party, in favor of individual rights, anti-big government.


Economics

Social science dealing with the production, distribution & consumption of goods & services


Emancipation proclimation

Lincoln 1863 freed all slaves in regions still fighting against the Union


Executive Branch

Oversees that the country’s laws are executed (President, FBI, US Marshalls)


Federalism

System of government, consists of a number of self-governing regions (states) united by a central (federal) government ex: USA


Federalist Papers

Series of articles, Alexander Hamilton 1787, James Madison & John Jay gain support for the then-proposed Constitution


Fudalism

Social, economic & political system in which power is decentralized varying number of lords hold land which they allow others to live and work in exchange for loyalty and service (Medieval Europe)


Fief

Land held by lords under the feudal system


49ers

nickname for the influx of people that arrived in CA starting in 1849 Gold Rush


Free-soilers

Political Party, pre-Civil War, small but influential, Opposed extension of slavery into western territories


Gentleman’s Agreement

1907 treaty with Japan, allowed wives to join their husbands that were already in the USA. In return, Japan couldn’t deny exit visas for Japanese men that wanted to move to USA


Great awakening

Religious revival in the colonies in first part of 1700s


Great Compromise

Decision made by Constitutional Congress, split Congress into two houses, House of Representatives – based on population (Virginia Plan), Senate – based on equal representation (New Jersey Plan)


Hunter / gatherer societies

Early society, men hunted mean, women gathered fruits/veggies/nuts


Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

British reaction to Boston Tea Party, Put more rigid restriction on colonial town meetings & other harsh penalties


Judicial Branch

Branch of government that interprets Congressional Laws (Supreme Court)


Justinian Code

Basis for the justice system used in Western World (including USA)


Land Commission

Est. to settle disputed between Californios’ land claims during 1st few years of statehood


Law of supply & demand

basic economic principle stating that if supply is greater than demand, the value of a product is lower


Legislative Branch

Makes the Congressional Laws (Congress)


Louisiana Purchas

1803 Thomas Jefferson doubled the USA’s territory


Manifest Destiny

1845 phrase, USA should expand to Pacific Ocean Best Ex: Mexican American War


Mercantilism

Practice of state regulation and control of an economy


Missouri Compromise

1820 Law, Compromise that made it so that no state North of the Mason Dixie line (except Missouri) that was added to the union could be a slave state


Monotheism

Worship of only 1 god


Nullification

Right that the southern states felt they had after the Missouri Compromise. Thought they had the right to refuse to agree with Federal laws they didn’t agree with.


Octopus

Nickname for the Central Pacific Railroad’s monopoly over CA’s commerce (early 1900s)


Pilgrims

Religious group who had broken away from the church of England, 1st went to Holland, then went to Mass. in fall of 1620


Popular Sovereignty

Direct Democracy


Presidio

Forts built by Spanish, protects the missionaries and settlers during revolts by Native Americans


Pueblos

towns around the CA missions built around a church and town square


Rancho System

A land allotment system defined by a few large landowners & many landless workers


reconsitution

Time period after civil war, Lincoln hoped to reconcile the North and South, Johnson’s plans for reconstitution failed b/c he was too lenient on south (only req. 10% of southerners to declare loyalty to the union for the sate to reenter)


Reincarnation

Belief that you are reborn as another organism Hinuidm


Relocation Camps

Japanese internment camps during WWII


Renaissance

French word for “rebirth” Flowering of Europe culture after Medieval period


Sucession

Southern states leaving the union


Separate but equal

reasoning for segregation of blacks and whites


Serf

Peasants who work on land in feudal system


Shogun

Feudal Japan, Equivalent of European King


10% Plan

Created by President Johnson (Lincoln’s VP) Southern state could be readmitted to the union if 10% of those that voted in 1860 election vowed loyalty to the Union


3/5 Compromise

Slaved count as 3/5 of a person written into original constitution regarding population counts


Vassal

equivalent to knight


Name 3 reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire

1. Continuous barbarian invasions
2. No formal political system
3. Rise of Christianity divides empire (internal – decline of farm reduction, excessive tax, inflation…)


What were the results of the industrial revolution?

Growth of canal system, increase productivity, rise of industrial cities, division of society in distinct classes


US constitution separation of powers

Legislative (congress) – make laws & declares war
Executive (President) – enforcing laws, veto
Judicial (courts) – interpret the laws, declare act of congress unconstitutional


Hellenistic Age

Fusion of Greek and eastern cultures increase in international trade, end Greek city-state system


Magna Carta

American Constitution
– Importance of a written constitution
– Right to due process of law
– Protect against excessive bail


Articles of Confed.

– states printed own currency
– each state records one vote in congress
– Amendments needed a unanimous vote


15th Amendment

Voting to freedmen


Exploration and Colonization (1450-1763)

1. The opening of new worlds was associated with age of discovery
2. England developed permanent colonises in North America


hydraulic mining

Greatest impact on farmers and steamboat companies


“Age of Discovery” (1450-1763)

1. European explores in search of Asia discovered a new continent.
2. The “Age of Discovery” resulted in renewed European rivalry.
3. Spain, France, England, Portugal, and the Netherlands competed for land.


shang dynasty

1st dynasty controlled single ??


chou (zhou) dynasty

came from west, allowed semi-independent states to remain in the east, was a lot of fighting in eastern part of China becasue Chou were not expecting control.


ch’in dynasty

1st dynasty to establish a strong central gov. that unified all of China. Introduced philosophy of legalism, it laid groundwork for cultural ideas. strict set of laws and strict responsibility people have for society to fill your role, if you didn’t you had bad penalties.


han dynasty

time of great prosperity, China grew.
-active trade routes to Europe
-trading in Europe
-politics influenced by Confucianism.
-buddhism also comes from here


sui dynasty

grand canal was built connecting the Yankee river valley with the North where politics and the military were stationed. Supplied North w fanning products, helped unify China.


California’s American Indian People’s

Calie was home to more Native Americans than any other regions in the U.S.
-because there are a lot of natural resources that could be used here.
-relied on acorns as primary food source (acorn flour)
-basket weaving
-polytheistic cultures


Spanish Exploration

-The mission system had a significant impact on early Cali, both religiously and economically.
-Native people used as free labor for agriculture
-The missions didn’t satisfy either goal effectively
-When Mexico got it’s independence from Spain it got rid of the Mission systems and


early exploration of North America

Norris explorers preceded Columbus in reaching the new world but Columbus was the first explorer to establish and government agencies major settlements


Christopher Columbus

First person to govern major settlements in North America


John Cabot

Made the first voyage to America for England


Coronado

Explored the American southwest the Pacific coast


Columbus four major trips to America

During his four major trips to America Columbus took Native American slaves back to Spain and also establish poorly managed Agricultural and Mining camps in which Native Americans often raped tortured and forced into performing slave labor


Things that were taken from the new world to the old world

Corn was taken to Europe . the canoe. Slaves. Diseases such as syphilis.


Things that were brought from Europe to the new world

Diseases such as smallpox. Christianity. Horses.


The colonial regions three of them

North New England Shipbuilding. Middle colonies farming. Southern colonies tobacco and cotton.


Jamestown Settlement

One of the first colonies located in Virginia first permanent settlement in North America founded by the London company


Massachusetts Bay Colony

Founded by Puritans who wanted to break away from the church to set up a more pure Bible wealth for America the pilgrims in the Plymouth Colony


New York

Named after the Duchess of York used to be New Amsterdam when the Dutch rope


Pennsylvania

What started by Quakers farming and religious group


Colonial era French Indian War

What is an extension of the seven year war Spanish in French and Indians lost to the British as a result the British acquired serious debt and problems controlling the large new territory they started taxing heavily resentment started to build in the settlements towards the British


Revolutionary War or War reasons for the declaration of Independence

Tariffs lack of representation quarantine a British soldiers Boston Massacre the. Itloerable acts


Tariffs

The Townshend Acts variety of different Goods like tea, the stamp act. Tax on written Goods most errors were removed except for the tax on tea protest by the Boston Tea Party


Lack of representation

No taxation without representation and Parliament in the British government


Quartering of British soldiers

Having to put the soldiers up for the government


Boston Massacre

Citizens taunting the troops the troops fired on the citizens


Intolerable Acts

To punish Americans for the Boston Tea Party basically the colonists were put under martial law and they didn’t like it


1776 colonies declare independence

War began the battles of Saratoga and the Battle of Yorktown two major battles


Battle of Saratoga

Patriots won their first battle against the British and convinced the French they have a good chance of winning the French started helping the colonists to weaken the British weapons money Exedra


Battle of Yorktown

What’s the battle the Patriots won to ensure the victory over the British which led to the colonies becoming independent states


United States political system

Articles of Confederation and the Constitution


Articles of Confederation

Recreate it as a wartime document and were too limited to serve as the basis for government


The Constitution

Established the US government as it exists today and attempted to protect citizens freedoms through the Bill of Rights


Articles of Confederation created 3 things

The ability to unite the colonies to form an army. Fund the war effort print and borrow money. Resolve territorial disputes who gets what regions.


Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the Constitution designed to protect the people.


U.s. government three branches

Legislative executive and judicial branches


Bicameral

Two houses of government under the legislative branch


Legislature

Representation the House of Representatives is based on population. In the Senate it’s based on two Representatives Peach State done this way so the larger states don’t control smaller States


Executive branch

The president and his cabinet


Judicial branch

Supreme Court and lower courts


Purpose of legislative branch

To make the laws


Purpose of executive branch

To enforce the laws


Purpose of judicial branch

To interpret the laws


Vito

It was sent to the president that is rejected. Once the president has vetoed a law there must be a two-thirds majority vote to pass the law


Impeachment

A tool that legislature can use to keep things and checks and balances on the executive branch


Executive branch

Nominates Supreme Court if legislative Branch must ratify the nominee


Judicial branch

Can take a look at a law that has been passed by the executive and legislative branches if it is not constitutional they can throw the law out


Marberry versus Madison

Set up power for judicial review to declare a law unconstitutional


Two political parties

The Federalist strong central government. Anti-federalist more states rights and States power mostly Southerners


Many different parties existed over time

The Democratic. Versus the Whigs that became the Republicans eccentric


Manifest destiny

The expansion of our country to the West


Louisiana Purchase

Purchased by Thomas Jefferson from the French doubling the United States territorial holding


Annexation of the Republic of Texas

Texas succeeded from Mexico letter to join the u.s. or annexed into the u.s.


California territory

After winning the Spanish-American War in signing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago this territory became part of the United States


Oregon Territory

Signed a treaty with Great Britain for this area


Gadsden purchase

Land in Arizona and New Mexico Purchase from Mexico to complete the United States


War of 1812 one of the sailors

England was taking over the sea and taking captive the sailors are the United States the world was really a draw but it true the country together who created nationalism Unity of all states established United States as a power


Slave trade

Europe’s desire for Cheap Tobacco and cotton set up the first leg of the trade route to pick up slaves from Africa the middle passage was Bieber doing inhumane where slaves were brought to America then sell them pick up tobacco and start the process all over again


Conflict of slavery

The north did not like people being enslaved the South needed them for economic purposes


States joining the Union

Each state could decide weather to be a slave or non slave state


Missouri Compromise

Missouri came in as a slave state offset the balance so they split the Massachusetts territory and created the state of Maine so that slave and non-slave states will be equal


Compromise of 1850

California would come in as a free state but when you talk and you Mexico came in they could decide free or slave state


The Kansas-Nebraska Act

The states could choose free or slave


Dred Scott decision

Runaway slave to a free state is not human therefore does not have the right to be free made many people mad


Election of Abraham Lincoln

What is an abolitionist president on the south feared abolishment of slavery led to a trip or divide of the United States


Civil War

South feared that the abolitionists would abolish slavery the southerners decided to succeed from the United States
-stemmed from south’s resistance to the northern abolitionist movement and was accelerated by the shift in federal power that occurred.


Advantages of the North

North were able to produce weapons transportation three times the railroad tracks


South advantage

Military leaders Robert E Lee and Stonewall Jackson


Strategies of the North

Close-up sea routes and capture the capital split the South and makes you fight a two-front war start them out


Southern strategy

Surgeon to the north take over manufacturing and supply lines


First Battle of Fort Sumter

First battle of the Civil War
-Beauregard fires on Federal fort in Charleston Harbor


Battle of Antietam

-Deadliest/Bloodiest day
-first major Surge from the south to the north


Chancellorsville

General Lee defeats hookers Army of Potomac but Jackson is killed


Gettysburg

Pickett’s Charge is fails and this is beginning of the end for the cell


Appomattox

Lee’s forces are surrounded and Lee surrenders Civil War was the first war Chronicles by photography


Reconstruction at the South

Radicals militarily Force the South to adhere to the new guidelines. Moderates wanted to just give them the guidelines and have the South Implement them. President Johnson was impeached for not supporting the radicals


The End of Reconstruction

-The disputed presidential election of 1876 led to compromise which ended reconstruction.
-The North told the South “if you accept the president we will end radical reconstruction” and the south accepted.
-the N. withdrew troops & had a more moderate model of reconstruction now.


Northerners move to the South

They were not well received they were called Carpetbaggers and scalawags


The rise to Jim crows law

What were the laws that the South came up with after reconstruction ended like white black schools under radical rights to vote on property Exedra for blacks this all came about because the compromise of 1876 and the contested presidential election


Industrial

Worldwide change in society brought about by technology in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries do you Monumental advances in manufacturing Technologies


Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Fast growth and Improvement of roadways and waterways urbanization the emergence and Rise of the middle class and increased dependence on foreign trade


Nativism

Immigrant groups start hating each other
-led to Chinese exclusion act


Chinese Exclusion Act

People from China trying to come over and work


Gentlemen’s Agreement

Asking other countries not to allow other people to come to America to work


Monroe Doctrine

Asserted us power by forbidding for the European colonization or interference in the Americas North or South America


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