Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue – Histology

Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue – Histology

This chapter is about cartilage muscle and connective tissue of histology.


Cardiac muscle

Branching striated, generally uninucleated cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions called intercalated discs.

Cardiac muscle. Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue - Histology

Smooth muscle

Spindle shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets.

Image: Smooth muscle

Interphase

Image: Interphase

Prophase

Image: Prophase

Metaphase

Image: Metaphase

Anaphase

Image: Anaphase

Telophase

Image: Telophase

Neuron

Image: Neuron

Simple squamous epithelium

Description: single layer or flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm.Simple of the epithelia.
Functions: allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not imp.
Location: kidney, air sacs lungs, lining of heart

Image: Simple squamous epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Description: single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei
Function: secretion and absorption
Location: kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface

Image: Simple cuboidal epithelium

simple columnar epithelium

Description: single layer of talls cells with round oval nuclei
Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus enzymes and other substances
Location: Digestive tract

Image: simple columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Description: single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface.
Function: secrete substances, particularly mucus
Location: upper respiratory tracts, lines th trachea, sperm-carrying ducts.

Image: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

Description: thick membrane composed of several cell layers
Function: protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Location: esophagus, mouth and vagina.

Image: Stratified squamous epithelium

Transitional epithelium

Description: basal cells cuboidal and columnar
Function: stretches readily,permits stored urine to distend urinary organ
Location: lines the ureters, bladder and part of the urethra

Image: Transitional epithelium

Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar

Description: gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; fibroblast, macrophages,mast cells and some white cells.
Function: wraps and cushions organs
Location: under epithelia of body.

Image: Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar

Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose

Description: matrix as in areolar, but very sparse
Function: provides reserve food fuel
Location: under skin, around kidneys and eyeball, abdomen and breast

Image: Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose

reticular

Description: loose network of reticular fibers in a gel-like ground substance
Function: fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cells types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages.

Image: reticular

dense regular

Description: few elastic fibers
Function: attaches muscles to bones or to muscles
Location: tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses

Image: dense regular

dense irregular

description: some elastic fibers
Function: withstands tension exerted in many directions
Location; organs and joints, dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract.

Image: dense irregular

elastic

description: containing high portion of elastic fibers
Functions: allows tissue to recoil after stretching maintaining pulsatile flow of blood through arteries
Location: walls of large arteries.

Image: elastic

Cartilage: hyaline

Function: supports and reinforces
Location: embryonic skeleton, costal cartilages of the ribs, trachea and larynx.

Image: Cartilage: hyaline

Cartilage: elastic

Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
Location: support external ear

Image: Cartilage: elastic

Cartilage: fibrocartiage

Function: tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock
Location: intervertebral discs, knee joint

Image: Cartilage: fibrocartiage

other: bone (osseous tissue)

Function: supports and protects
Locations: bones

Image: other: bone (osseous tissue)

Connective tissue: Blood

function; transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances.
Location: contained within blood vessels

Image: Connective tissue: Blood

skeletal muscle

Function: voluntary movement
Location: in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin

Image: skeletal muscle

Simple squamous epithelium

Single layer of flattened cells.

Image: Simple squamous epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Single layer of cubelike cells.

Image: Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple columnar epithelium

Single layer of tall cells With tall oval nuclei.

Image: Simple columnar epithelium

Pseudo Stratified columnar epithelium

Single layer of cells of differing heights, nuclei at different levels.

Image: Pseudo Stratified columnar epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

Thick membrane composed of several layers. Basal layers are cuboidal or columnar with flattened surface layers.

Image: Stratified squamous epithelium

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Generally two layers of cube like cells.

Image: Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Stratified columnar epithelium

Several cell layers. Basal cells usually cuboidal with superficial columnar cells.

Image: Stratified columnar epithelium

Transitional epithelium

Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal. Different shapes based on organ stretch.

Image: Transitional epithelium

Embryonic connective tissue: Mesenchyme

Gel like ground substance containing connective fiber and star like mesenchymal cells.

Image: Embryonic connective tissue: Mesenchyme

Connective Tissue proper: Loose connective tissue, areolar

Gel like matrix with all 3 fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some leukocytes.

Image: Connective Tissue proper: Loose connective tissue, areolar

Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose.

Gel like matrix but scarce. Tightly packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets.

Image: Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose.

Connective tissue proper:

loose connective tissue reticular.Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network.

Image: Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue reticular.

Connective tissue proper: dense regular connective tissue.

Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fibers; major cell type is fibroblasts.

Image: Connective tissue proper: dense regular connective tissue.

Connective tissue proper: elastic connective tissue.Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers.

Image: Connective tissue proper: elastic connective tissue.

Connective tissue proper: dense irregular connective tissue.

Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is fibroblasts.

Image: Connective tissue proper: dense irregular connective tissue.

Cartilage: Hyaline

Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and, when mature, lie in lacunae.

Image: Cartilage: Hyaline

Cartilage: elastic

Similar to hyaline, but more elastic fibers in matrix.

Image: Cartilage: elastic

Cartilage: fibrocartilage

Matrix similar to but less firm than matrix in hyaline cartilage, thick collagen fibers predominate.

Image: Cartilage: fibrocartilage

Bones (osseous tissue)

Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized.

Image: Bones (osseous tissue). Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue - Histology

Blood

Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix.

Image: Blood

Nervous tissue

Neurons are branching cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are non-excitable supporting cells.

Image: Nervous tissue. Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue - Histology

cardiac muscle

Function: as it contracts it propels blood into the circulation.
Location: the walls of the heart.

Image: cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Function: propels substances or objects along internal passageways. (foodstuffs, urine, baby)
Location: mostly in the walls of hollow organs

Image: Smooth muscle. Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue - Histology

Nervous tissue

Function: Neurons transmit electrical signals form sensory receptors and to effectors
Location: brain, spinal cord and nerves

Nervous tissue. Cartilage Muscle & Connective Tissue - Histology

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