Hypertension & Hypotension – Pharmacology for Nurses

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Chapter 22: Antihypertensive Drugs Test & Hypertension & Hypotension

The key terms in this Pharmacology course Anti-hypertensive Drugs, Hypertension, Hypotension, Patient, Medication, Hypotensive Effect, Blood, Vascular Resistance, Vasodilator, Adverse Effect, Arterial Blood Pressure, Cardiac Output and Systemic Vascular Resistance, Methyldopa (Aldomet), Adrenergic Drug Doxazosin (Cardura)


An older adult patient will be taking a vasodilator for hypertension. Which adverse effect is of most concern for the older adult patient taking this class of drug?

Restlessness

Dry mouth

Hypotension

Constipation

The older adult patient is more sensitive to the blood pressure–lowering effects of vasodilators, and consequently experience more problems with hypotension, dizziness, and syncope. The other options are incorrect.


The nurse is preparing for a community education program on hypertension. Which of these parameters determine the regulation of arterial blood pressure?

Blood volume and renal blood flow

Heart rate and peripheral resistance

Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance

Myocardial contractility and arteriolar constriction

Blood pressure is determined by the product of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. The other options are incorrect.


A pregnant woman is experiencing hypertension. The nurse knows that which drug is used for a pregnant patient who is experiencing hypertension?

Enalapril (Vasotec)

Mannitol (Osmitrol)

Methyldopa (Aldomet)

Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)

Methyldopa is used in the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. The other options are incorrect.


A patient has a new order for the adrenergic drug doxazosin (Cardura). When providing education about this drug, the nurse will include which instructions?

“Increase your potassium intake by eating more bananas and apricots.”

“Be sure to lie down after taking the first dose, because first-dose hypotension may make you dizzy.”

“Weigh yourself daily, and report any weight loss to your prescriber.”

“The impaired taste associated with this medication usually goes away in 2 to 3 weeks.”

A patient who is starting doxazosin should take the first dose while lying down because there is a first-dose hypotensive effect with this medication. The other options are incorrect.


When teaching a patient about antihypertensive drug therapy, which statements by the nurse are correct? (Select all that apply.)

“You need to have your blood pressure checked once a week and keep track of the readings.”

“Most over-the-counter decongestants are compatible with antihypertensive drugs.”

“An exercise program may be helpful in treating hypertension, but let’s check with your doctor first.”

“If you notice that the symptoms have gone away, you should be able to stop taking the drug.”

“Please continue taking the medication, even if you are feeling better.”

“If you experience severe side effects, stop the medicine and let us know at your next office visit.”

Keeping a record of weekly blood pressure checks helps to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy. Remind the patient not to stop taking the medication just because he or she is feeling better. Abruptly stopping the medication may lead to rebound hypertension. Therapy is often lifelong, even though symptoms may improve. Many over-the-counter drugs, especially decongestants, have serious interactions with antihypertensive drugs. The patient needs to consult his or her prescriber before taking any other medication.