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Quiz 1 Mental Category – People & Cognition Psychology

This quiz related to mental category – people & cognition psychology.

If you see a woman enter your classroom on the first day of class that is wearing a suit, carrying a briefcase, and is over 40 years old, you might quickly (and possibly erroneously) decide that she is the professor because she fits your prototype of a professor.  If so, you’ve used the mental shortcut known as the _____.

representativeness heuristic – correct

A _____ is a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli.

Concept – correct

According to _____ theory, we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories of other instances of the category.

exemplar – correct

A _____ is the “best” or “most typical” member of a category.

prototype – correct

According to the _____ theory, members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every memeber.

family resemblance – correct

Karl doesn’t fly because he believes he’s more likely to die in a plane crash than a car crash.  This is because he’s recently heard about numerous plane crashes, but no car crashes at all, on the nightly news.  Those examples more readily available in his memory are judged as occurring more frequently due to the _____.

availability bias – correct

According to your textbook, “when compared with others, people believe that they are more likely to own their own homes and live a long life, and that they are less likely to have a heart attach or a drinking problem”  These beliefs are due to the _____.

optimism bias – correct

Marci has just finished the prerequisites needed to enter a nursing program in the fall, but she realizes that she no longer wants to major in or pursue a career in nursing.  She decides that she will continue on this path anyway, because she doesn’t want all the time and money she spent on the prerequisite courses to be wasted.  This demonstrates the _____.

sunk-cost fallacy – correct

People are not always rational decision-makers, and studies show that weWe tend to do poorly on tasks that require us to think in terms of _____, or the likelihood that something will happen.  

probabilities – correct

Even though it’s more probable than any single event will occur than it is probable that two events would occur together, we tend to believe just the opposite!  When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than is either individual event, it’s called the _____.

conjunction fallacy – correct