Stimulus And Operant conditioning – Psychology

Stimulus And Operant conditioning – Psychology

In this chapter we discuss Stimulus And Operant conditioning – Psychology


In psychology, the term “conditioning” refers to:

adaptation to specific environmental factors due to repeated exposure to those factors.

a prior exposure to a stimulus.

learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses. – correct

enhanced performance due to extensive practice and training in a particular skill or sport.


To produce a learned response in classical conditioning, what two elements are repeatedly paired?

a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response – correct

a stimulus and a response

a behavioral response and a natural environmental consequence

an unconditioned response and a conditioned response


Steven Spielberg’s classic movie Jaws was a thriller about a great white shark that terrorized tourists at a local beach. Just before the shark’s appearance, eerie music began playing. As the unseen shark came closer, the tempo of the music picked up. After the audience had experienced this a few times, the sound of the music triggered the emotional reaction of fear in the audience even though the shark still had not appeared. At that point, the sound of the eerie music was a:

conditioned response (CR)

conditioned stimulus (CS) – correct

unconditioned response (UCR)

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)


In the above example of Jaws, the great white shark is the:

unconditioned response (UCR)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – correct


In Jaws, the unconditioned response of fear is due to the:

great white shark – correct

eerie music

terrorized tourists

water


Prior to conditioning, a dog will salivate in response to food placed in its mouth. Using classical conditioning terms, the food would be labeled the _____, while the dog salivating would be labeled the _____.

conditioned stimulus; conditioned response

conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response – correct

unconditioned response; unconditioned stimulus


The unconditioned response (UCR) and conditioned response (CR) are always the same.

True – correct

False


John B. Watson believed that psychology should study:

consciousness

physiological processes

observable behavior – correct

conditioned stimuli


Which of the following has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response?

the timing of the operant

the size of the unconditioned response

the magnitude of the reinforcer

the timing of stimulus presentations – correct


Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students’ anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students’ anxiety may be attributed to the process of:

latent learning

spontaneous recovery

extinction – correct

stimulus generalization


You worked extra hard this past week–finishing projects on time and producing high quality work.  As a result, your boss treats you to lunch.  Your boss is using which operant conditioning method to have high quality work continue?

positive punishment

positive reinforcement – correct

negative reinforcement

negative punishment


You continue to produce high quality work, however, instead of your boss treating you to lunch, your boss lets you leave early on Friday.  Your boss is using which form of operant conditioning?

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement – correct

positive punishment

negative punishment


John Watson had a major impact not only on psychology but also on the U.S. advertising industry. Which statement best describes Watson’s influence on the advertising industry?

Watson demonstrated the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers and behavior modification techniques in improving worker productivity.

Watson was a pioneer in using classical conditioning in advertising campaigns so that consumers would associate emotional responses with particular consumer products. – correct

Watson’s research on conditioned responses in animals was used to improve veterinary practice and to develop new products for pets and livestock.

Watson’s classical conditioning techniques demonstrated the importance of having employees wear uniforms with the company’s logo.


Which of the following advertising techniques is based on classical conditioning principles?

a salesperson explaining why Brand X is superior

a picture of a shelf filled with Brand X products

a sexy model using Brand X – correct

including a $1.00 mail-in rebate in the ad for Brand X


Which of the following best illustrates classical conditioning?

Marilyn practically jumped out of her chair when a very loud clap of thunder occurred right over her house.

Susan gives her daughter five dollars a week to help with chores around the house.

Because his older brother once locked him in the closet, Marcus gets anxious in small enclosed rooms. – correct

After watching another three-year-old stick out her tongue at the daycare worker, Beth does the same thing.


Whenever Rosa tries to talk on the telephone, her 5-year-old daughter Isabel repeatedly interrupts her. If Rosa wanted to use the strategy of reinforcing the problem behavior to not occur again, she would:

reward Isabel for not interrupting her during a phone call. – correct

ignore Isabel’s attempts to talk to her while she is on the phone.

send Isabel to a corner every time she interrupted her while she is on the phone.

tell her friend that she would call her back and immediately attend to whatever it was that Isabel wanted.


Which of the following alternatives to punishment represents the best method for reducing a problem behavior?

Charlene no longer gets any attention when she has a temper tantrum.

Because of her defiant behavior, Lana is not allowed to be a part of the fun class activities while she sits on a chair in a corner.

Jose is reinforced for working quietly in class instead of being punished for talking in class. – correct

Shirmilla and Jason are given lollipops to distract them from squabbling.


Out of frustration, a mother yells at her daughter for not cleaning up her room.  Perhaps, without knowing it, the mother is using which form of operant conditioning?

negative punishment

positive reinforcement.

negative reinforcement

positive punishment – correct


An extreme and cruel form of conditioning used in prisons at times is solitary confinement.  Which form of operant conditioning would solitary confinement fall under:

extinction

negative reinforcement – correct

negative punishment

positive reinforcement


After getting cactus needles stuck in her hand, 2-year-old Rachel no longer touches cactus plants. Using operant conditioning terms, this is an example of:

positive punishment – correct

negative reinforcement

negative punishment

positive reinforcement


Punishment is most effective if:

there is considerable delay between the operant and the punishment.

it occasionally follows the operant.

it immediately precedes the operant.

it consistently follows the operant.


Which of the following statements about B. F. Skinner is TRUE?

Skinner believed that human behavior is determined by environmental consequences, not by individual choice or free will. – correct

Skinner advocated greater use of punishment to control behavior.

Skinner strongly advocated the study of mental processes to understand behavior.

Skinner believed that classical conditioning should be abandoned as an explanation of behavior.


Classical conditioning is to _____ as operant conditioning is to _____.

superstitious pigeons; drooling dogs

B.F. Skinner; John B. Watson

behavior emitted by an organism; behavior elicited by a stimulus

associating two stimuli; associating a response and a consequence – correct


“Okay, that was good! Now this time, don’t close your eyes. Keep your eye on the ball, so you know when to close your hands,” Mark said in the process of teaching his 5-year-old to play catch. In operant conditioning terms, Mark is using _____ to teach his daughter how to catch a ball.

negative reinforcement

shaping – correct

extinction

spontaneous recovery


Operant conditioning works with reflexive behavior and emotions.

True – correct

False


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