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Psychology Chapter 16 & 17 Exam

This is Psychology chapter 16 & 17 exam.

When we perform well, we typically attribute our success to __________

internal characteristics – correct

According to the theory of cognitive dissonance, attitudes are changed because

clashing thoughts cause discomfort – correct

According to evolutionary psychologists

women tend to be concerned with whether mates will devote time and resources to a relationship – correct

Physical proximity increases attraction because it

increases frequency of contact – correct

In general, helping behavior in emergency situations is discouraged by

the presence of a large number of persons.- correct

Which was a significant factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram’s series of experiments?

the setting in which the experiment was conducted – correct

The study of the adaptive origins of human behavior patterns is called

evolutionary psychology – correct

Define social psychology

The study of the influences of social processes on the way people think, feel and behave – correct

Define affiliation

The need to be with others and to form satisfying and harmonious relationships – correct

Why affiliation is satisfying

Provides stimulation, emotional support and a basis for social comparison – correct

The relationship between stress and affiliation

Affiliation can reduce stress by distraction, social comparison, cognitive clarity – correct

The 4 major antecedents of interpersonal attraction

Similarity, proximity, physical attractiveness, interpersonal rewards – correct

Interpersonal attraction – similarity

Demographic characteristics: (race, education), physical attractiveness level, values, attitudes and interests, shared subjective experience – correct

Interpersonal attraction – physical attractiveness

Averaged and symmetrical features because we associate them as being smart, happy, successful – correct

Interpersonal attraction – Interpersonal rewards

Direct (attention, approval) or Indirect (cognitive stimulation) rewards – correct
Benefits must outweigh the costs – correct

Interpersonal attraction – familiarity

The more near to someone, more likely to like them – correct
Physical proximity allows interaction accessibility – correct

Mere Exposure Effect

The more we see it, the more we like them – correct

Define passionate love

Intense physiological arousal and sexual desire – correct

Define companionate love

Deep affection and friendship – correct

Distinction between companionate and passionate love

Companionate love grows over time while passionate love begins high then diminishes over time with periodic peaks – correct

Describe the self-disclosure patterns of close relationships

Partners reveal more as the relationship develops – correct

Explain the Evolutionary explanation of love

Feelings and behaviours associated with love evolved to lead to reproductive success – correct
Women more choosier on their mating partners – correct

Explain the Attachment explanation of love

Romantic relationships share features with infant attachments – correct

Define Conformity

Changing attitudes or behaviour to accommodate the standards of peers/groups – correct

What are the major types of conformity

Informational influence, Normative influence, Anti-conformity – correct

Informational influence

Looking to the group to obtain and accept accurate information about reality – correct
Change in public behaviour and private opinion – correct
Desire to be right – correct

Normative influence

Conforming to be liked and accepted – correct
Change in public behaviour but not private opinion – correct


Conscious and deliberate contradiction to the group – correct
Motivated by rebelliousness – correct

Describe results of Asch’s conformity study

Without pressure to conform participants chose wrong answer <1% – correct
With pressure to conform, participants chose wrong answer 33% – correct

Factors that influence rates of conformity

Culture, Ambiguity of information, Fear of negative evaluation, Group size, Unanimity – correct

Culture influencing conformity

Collectivist culture more likely to conform than individualist – correct

Ambiguity of information influencing conformity

Informational social influence – looking for correct answer – correct

Fear of negative evaluation influencing conformity

Normative social influence – attractiveness/importance of the group – correct

Group size influencing conformity

5 if the influential number – correct

Unanimity influencing conformity

If another person gives a different response, conformity drops sharply – correct

Describe how group pressure can be resisted

Anti-conformity, Independence – correct


Behaviour not dependent of group – correct

Define obedience

Compliance to an authority figure – correct

Describe results of Milgram’s obedience study

Majority of participants were wiling to obey authority even if they believed it was morally wrong – correct

Factors that influence rates of obedience (5)

Correct Answers

Entrapment (being asked to)
Etiquette of the situation
Buffers (proximity of the learner)
Surveillance (proximity of authority)
Abrogation of responsibility (just following orders)

Describe the Stanford Prison Study

Investigated how reality people would adapt to the roles of a guard and prisoner within a prison setting.- correct
Demonstrated “People do things because of WHERE they are, not WHO they are – correct

Distinguish between prosocial behaviour and altruism

Prosocial behaviour is any behaviour that helps another person – correct
Altruism is any behaviour that helps another person with no apparent gain or cost to oneself – correct

Biosocial theory of why people help

Altruism increases the likelihood of prospering – correct

Reciprocal altruism

If a person performs an altruistic act, another person will in return (karma) – correct

Kin Selection

More likely to help blood relatives because it increases chance their genes will be reproduced – correct

Who are people more likely to help?

Young > old – correct
Close to kin > distant kin – correct

Social-learning theory of why people help

We learn from helping each other – correct

Vicarious helping

Observing and modelling other people helping – correct

Factors that influence helping behavior

Correct Answers

Sex (men help strangers, women help friends)
Sexual arousal
Presence of others

James is a 68-year-old retired history professor, who has been asked to take over a college class for a week. Although he has practiced with the equipment used in the classroom, he is concerned that any slip in using this computer equipment will confirm the stereotype about older people “not being able to learn new skills, particularly those related to computers.” Because he is anxious and preoccupied about possible problems with the classroom equipment, James actually does experience problems with the computer projection system during his first lecture. Psychologist Claude Steele referred to this as:
a. stereotype threat.- correct
b. dogmatism.
c. scapegoating.
d. cognitive dissonance.

Because of their higher testosterone levels, men are more likely engage in physical aggression than women. This fact supports which theory of aggression?
a. social learning
b. instinctual
c. humanistica
d. biological – correct

Philip and Joanna have been married for 20 years and are committed to staying married to each other for the rest of their lives. They enjoy spending time together and have many interests and hobbies in common. However, with their busy jobs and taking care of their three teenagers, the passion in their marriage is almost nonexistent. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of love do Philip and Joanna possess?
a. companionate love – correct
b. fatuous love
c. nonlove
d. liking

Vanessa is female, a daughter, and a young adult. The roles that shape her behavior are called __________ roles.
a. ascribed – correct
b. actualized
c. achieved
d. ascertained

Deep emotional and/or sexual feelings for another person are called:
a. commitment.
b. intimacy.
c. passion.- correct
d. romantic love.

Your phone rings, and a voice on the line asks if you will answer a short survey about your Internet service. When you agree and spend the next ten minutes answering questions regarding your Internet service, you have just exhibited:
a. conformity.
b. obedience.
c. compliance.- correct
d. pseudostupidity.

If the policies of a governmental institution reflect the belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality, then this prejudice is called:
a. heterosexism.- correct
b. sexism.
c. homophobia.
d. transsexualism.

In Nazi Germany, obedient soldiers, who had once been average citizens helped slaughter more than six million people in concentration camps. When confronted with this atrocious act, many of the soldiers rationalized that they were just following orders, that is they:
a. exhibited false attribution to their country.
b. exhibited passive compliance to the Nazi command.
c. succumbed to legitimate persuasion from their superiors.
d. exhibited excessive obedience to an authority.- correct

You have agreed to buy a new car for an attractive low price, then the dealer mentions some extras that you must have and the various city and state taxes that must be added. The price is now becoming much less attractive. This illustrates the:
a. foot-in-the-door effect.
b. door-in-the-face effect.
c. lowball technique.- correct
d. highball technique.

Regarding stereotypes and prejudice, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Stereotypes tend to simplify people into “us” and “them” categories.
b. If evidence against their stereotype builds up, the prejudiced person is likely to change his or her stereotyped belief.- correct
c. Because some elements of prejudice are unconscious, they are very difficult to change.
d. Stereotype threat is the anxiety caused by the fear of being judged in terms of a stereotype.

Prosocial behaviors are actions that:
a. change the social behavior of others.
b. may encourage aggression.
c. influence what happens in group situations.
d. are helpful to others.- correct

Which factor of interpersonal attraction refers to how alike you are to another person in background, age, interests, and beliefs?
a. social conformity
b. proximity
c. similarity – correct
d. cohesiveness

Which of the following is a negative emotional attitude tinged with fear, hatred, or suspicion that is held against members of a particular social group?
a. prejudice – correct
b. stereotype
c. displaced aggression
d. discrimination

A condition in which two or more persons must depend on one another to meet each person’s needs or goals is called:
a. mutual interdependence.- correct
b. deindividuation.
c. an empathy-helping relationship.
d. status inequalities.

Perry believes that Georgia lost her job because she was incompetent when, in reality, the company was just downsizing. Perry has committed:
a. social biasing.
b. discrimination.
c. groupthink.
d. the fundamental attribution error.- correct

Regarding human behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. We affiliate to help us think about ourselves by comparing ourselves with others.
b. Humans seek the company of others to alleviate their fear or anxiety.
c. Humans are engaged in a perennial struggle for survival against one another.- correct
d. We cooperate with the people around us at least as much as we are in conflict with them.

Prejudice that occurs due to an adherence to group norms is called:
a. stereotyping.
b. personal prejudice.
c. groupthink.
d. group prejudice.- correct

According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following statements is TRUE of the mating patterns of men and women?
a. Women are biologically driven to have multiple partners and casual sex.
b. Men place more emphasis on the youth and physical attractiveness of their mates than women.- correct
c. Men tend to be concerned with whether mates will devote time and resources to a relationship.
d. Women place more emphasis on sexual fidelity than men do.

Which researchers conducted the landmark studies on bystander apathy and found that the more potential helpers present, the less likely people are to help?
a. Seyle and Newman
b. Asch and Milgram
c. Darley and Latané – correct
d. Dollard and Miller

We are more likely to comply with a request if:
a. it allows us to reciprocate a prior gift, favor, or service.
b. all of these are present.- correct
c. it is consistent with our previous actions.
d. it comes from someone we know rather than a stranger.

Psychologist Robert Cialdini coined a term to describe the tendency for a person who has refused a major request to later be more likely to comply with a minor request. The term for this compliance approach is called the:
a. door-in-the-face effect.- correct
b. foot-in-the-door effect.
c. highball technique.
d. lowball technique.

In general, we are attracted to people who:
a. we feel superior to or who can be strongly influenced by us.
b. are different from ourselves in many ways.
c. we are familiar with.- correct
d. are honest with us about our faults and shortcomings.

Shared beliefs that tend to trigger hostility between groups include all of the following EXCEPT believing that:
a. they are superior to other groups.
b. they have been unjustly exploited, wronged, or humiliated.
c. other groups are dishonest and a threat.
d. solutions can be reached through cooperation and compromise.- correct

According to your textbook, one of the tenderest prosocial acts would be to:
a. donate money to worthy causes.
b. volunteer one’s time in the community.
c. give blood regularly.
d. show kindness to strangers.- correct

Research on persuasion suggests that attitude change is encouraged when the communicator is:
a. a novice on the topic.
b. an authoritarian personality.
c. likable.- correct
d. dissimilar to the audience in some respect.

Which of the following do therapy groups, businesses, and sports teams seek to increase because it helps people to work together better?
a. compliance
b. group cohesiveness – correct
c. status comparisons
d. group structure

Regarding cues for aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Angry thoughts are considered internal cues for aggression.
b. Murders are much more likely to occur in homes where guns are kept.
c. Aversive stimuli, such as high temperatures, lower one’s overall arousal levels making one less sensitive to aggressive cues.- correct
d. External cues for aggression may include words, actions, and gestures.

A group that professes great devotion to some person and follows that person almost without question with the members typically being victimized by the leaders of this group in various ways is called a:
a. reference group.
b. cult.- correct
c. membership group.
d. political party.

During which stage of brainwashing are prisoners most likely to cooperate with their captors and provide the information requested in order to obtain relief from the abuse and pressure?
a. freezing
b. change – correct
c. unfreezing
d. resolution

Until your recent hospitalization, you thought that the insurance provided by your company was a good plan. However, after numerous phone calls to your company representative and to the insurance company, your attitude toward a national health care plan has changed. This attitude shift is due to:
a. direct contact.- correct
b. an interaction with others.
c. group membership.
d. the mean worldview.

Unlike friendship, romantic love usually involves:
a. an unbalanced social exchange.
b. lowered emotional arousal.
c. contrasting needs.
d. mutual absorption.- correct

Helping is much more likely when we are able to take the perspective of others and feel sympathy for their plight, a condition known as:
a. cognitive dissonance.
b. a diffusion of responsibility.
c. social comparison.
d. empathic arousal.- correct

Changing one’s behavior just because other people are nearby is the gentlest form of social influence and is called:
a. obedience.
b. passive compliance.
c. mere presence.- correct
d. conformity.

The study of the adaptive origins of human behavior patterns is called:
a. comparative psychology.
b. interpersonal attraction.
c. pragmatic epistemology.
d. evolutionary psychology.- correct

Excessive self-disclosure is a staple of many television talk shows. Guests frequently reveal intimate details about their personal lives. Viewers probably find such intimate disclosures entertaining rather than threatening, because the:
a. television guests are strangers to the viewer.
b. viewer has been desensitized by watching numerous talk shows and will not feel threatened by overdisclosure as non-TV talk show watchers.
c. viewer does not have to reciprocate with their own self-disclosure to these guests.- correct
d. television guests are viewed as sympathetic individuals who are seeking help from the talk show host.

According to the textbook, which of the following factors is NOT likely to motivate people to help?
a. the perception of yourself as a sad, unfortunate person – correct
b. feeling a connection to the person in need
c. previous experiences of helping others
d. seeing other people engaged in helping others

Meaningful evaluations are based on comparing oneself with people who are:
a. more advanced, but not experts, in the area of comparison.
b. of similar backgrounds and abilities.- correct
c. strangers.
d. experts in the area of comparison.

Social learning theory implies that watching a violent show or boxing match on TV:
a. releases tensions.
b. encourages aggression.- correct
c. reduces aggressive urges.
d. allows us to displace our aggression.

If you were sitting alone in your dorm room, picking your nose, and a stranger entered the room, you would probably stop picking your nose due to which form of social influence?
a. mere presence – correct
b. indirect obedience
c. conformity
d. compliance

Jake finds guns attractive and desirable, while Arthur feels that guns are threatening and destructive. Their differing feelings toward guns represent which component of their attitudes regarding guns and gun control?
a. belief
b. action
c. status
d. emotional – correct

Regarding bullying, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Bullying is a worldwide phenomenon and occurs among all age groups and in all settings.
b. Bullying can be verbal or physical.
c. To be considered bullying, the aggression must be a direct, “in your face” type of encounter.- correct
d. Childhood bullying can have long-term consequences for the mental health of both bullies and their victims.

In a classic study on social facilitation that involved college students shooting pool at a student union, it was found that when being watched by others, the less confident, average pool players:
a. decreased their accuracy.- correct
b. showed no change in their pool shooting ability.
c. improved their accuracy.
d. became extreme showmen and took risky shots, many of which did not pay off.

All of the following are strategies to prevent groupthink EXCEPT:
a. keeping the group small so a consensus can be reached more easily.- correct
b. encouraging second-chance meetings to rethink important decisions.
c. stating the problem factually.
d. making it clear that group members will be held accountable for decisions.

Regarding prejudice and direct experiences, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Prejudices that occur when members of another social group are perceived as a threat to one’s own interests are referred to as group prejudices.- correct
b. Once prejudices are established, they prevent us from accepting more positive experiences that could reverse the damage.
c. Subtle influences, such as parents’ attitudes, the depiction of people in books and on TV, and exposure to children of other races, can have an impact on one becoming prejudiced.
d. By the time they are three years old, many children show signs of race bias.

Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the presence or actions of others is known as:
a. social influence.- correct
b. ethnocentrism.
c. the actor-observer bias.
d. social exchange.

Regarding nonassertive behavior, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
a. Nonassertive behavior is characterized by all of these statements.
b. Nonassertive behavior is self-enhancing and maintains one’s self-respect.
c. Nonassertive behavior often achieves the goals intended.
d. Nonassertive behavior often leads to the receiver feeling sympathy, guilt, or contempt for the nonassertive person.- correct

____ is the scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in the presence of others.
a. Social psychology – correct
b. Humanistic psychology
c. Behavioral psychology
d. Personality psychology

____ is the process of making inferences about behavior.
a. Cohesiveness
b. Proxemics
c. Attribution – correct
d. Statusing

Prejudice is ____, while discrimination is ____.
a. social; personal
b. an attitude; a behavior – correct
c. a behavior; a norm
d. an opinion; a judgment

Stanley Milgram’s experiment in which a “teacher” gave shocks to a “learner” was actually designed to assess:
a. cognitive dissonance.
b. conformity.
c. obedience.- correct
d. power.

A famous actor would most likely be

High im social staus, but low in social power – correct

A cause of behavior that is assumed to lie within the person, such as ones personality is termed

Internal cause – correct

A person is more likely to conform if he or she

Has high needs for structure or certainty – correct

A person is less likely to confirm is he or she

Has low needs for structure or certainty – correct

A popular police chief would most likely be

High in both social status and social power – correct

After Boeing to walk each afternoon after work rather than watching TV you do wall each hater on for 2 weeks but soon revert back to watching TV because of

A long standing habit – correct

According to Harold Kelley two factors that greatly influence attribution of behavior are

Consistency and distinctiveness – correct

After nearly factory ruins your favorite river in which to fish you have become a strong opponent of pollution your attitude has been influenced by

Direct contact – correct

According to hall there are four basic zones related to interpersonal distances. Which is not one of those?

Territorial – correct

Asch is to conformity as milgram is to

Obedience – correct

An ongoing pattern of life that is passed form one generation to the next is called

Culture – correct

Although coercion is the strongest from of social influence which of the following would be the strongest of the remaining four listed

Obedience – correct

Attribution refers to the process of

Making inferences about the causes of ones own behavior and that of others – correct

Connie’s roommate the dorm plays musics while Connie’s is trying to study..

Passive compliance – correct

Comparing yourself with a person who ranks lower than you in some dimension is referred as

Downward comparisons – correct

Compliance involves people

Bending to the requests of totters who have little or no social power or authority – correct

Coercion is defined as

Being forced to change your beliefs or your behavior against you will – correct

Changes in a persons behavior induced but the presence of actions of others is known as

Social influence – correct

Homeless people tend to be

Low in both social status and social power – correct

During the unfreezing phase of brainwashing victims are

Subjected to humiliation feat and isolation – correct

The process of making inferences about the causes of one’s own behavior and the behavior of others is known as

Attribution – correct

Puzzled as to how Nazi soldiers, who had once been average citizens, could slaughter six million people in concentration camps, the psychologist who began a provocative series of experiments on obedience was

Stanley Milgram – correct

Puzzled as to how Nazi soldiers, who had once been average citizens, could slaughter six million people in concentration camps, the psychologist who began a provocative series of experiments on obedience was Which of the following would improve one’s ability to be self-assertive?

rehearsal and role-playing – correct

A person’s in-group is often defined by

Homeless people tend to be ​

low in both social status and social power.- correct

College athletes who practice less than usual before the important game in order to have an excuse for poor performance are illustrating the concept of​

self-handicapping – correct

If both parents belong to the same political party, chances are their children will belong to that party as adults. This reflects the importance of which factor in attitude formation?

The distance maintained in comfortable interactions with friends (18 inches to 4 feet) is called __________ distance.

The hostile reaction of others as you step in front of them in a grocery store checkout line occurs because you have violated a

Norm – correct

Research on persuasion suggests that attitude change is encouraged when the communicator is

Likable – correct

Regarding how one attributes behavior, a person’s personality traits, needs, and preferences would be considered

A group to which you do not identify and to which you attribute negative characteristics is known as a(n) __________ group.

Out- correct

In the Stanford Prison study, the participants

The first step in brainwashing involves physical and psychological abuse and isolation and is referred to as

Unfreezing – correct

According to your textbook, which of the following is one of the six ways in which attitudes are acquired? ​

group membership – correct

If someone insults you indirectly, Alberti and Emmons suggest that you should

ask for clarification – correct

If someone insults you indirectly, Alberti and Emmons suggest that you should ask for clarification because ​

​it will force the person to take responsibility for the aggression.- correct

Regarding attitudes, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Attitudes are the result of our genetic predispositions to behave in certain ways.- correct

According to the text, social psychology is the study of how people

According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT one of the six ways in which attitudes are acquired?

innate tendencies – correct

Which of the following summarizes our evaluation of objects and predicts and directs our future actions?

The three main components of an attitude are


Which of the following was a significant factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram’s series of experiments?

distance between the teacher and the experimenter (authority) – correct

When the participants in Milgram’s experiment were face to face with the learner and had to force the learner’s hand down on a simulated “shock plate,”

fewer followed the experimenter’s orders to deliver shocks.- correct

The Branch Davidian tragedy at Waco, the Heaven’s Gate group suicide in San Diego, and Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda movement are examples of the use of which of the following on their members?

Desensitization to violence means that

there was a reduction of emotional sensitivity to violence.- correct

More aggressive behaviors in both men and women are associated with higher levels of

Testosterone – correct

Regarding research on bystander behavior during an emergency, which of the following statements is FALSE?

The murder of Kitty Genovese provided researchers evidence of the mean worldview effect.- correct

Simply being around other people in times of stress increases the levels of the “snuggle drug”, which, in turn, reduces the stress response. The “snuggle drug” is really the hormone​

Oxytocin – correct

A good antidote for social stereotyping involves

seeking individuating information – correct

​Responding calmly to upsetting situations by seeing them as “problems to be solved” is the key to

self-control – correct

We can reduce our stress by just being around other people because affiliating with others increases the levels of which hormone?

Oxytocin – correct

Scapegoating is a type of

Racial prejudice that is reflected in the policies of police departments, schools, or government institutions is referred to as

Racism – correct

Which researchers conducted the landmark studies on bystander apathy and found that the more potential helpers present, the less likely people are to help?

Darley and Latané – correct

Which of the following may explain much antisocial as well as prosocial behavior?​

People who were the victims of violence during childhood are likely to become violent themselves. This is a testament to which theory of aggression?

According to psychologists Latané and Darley, people are less willing to help someone in distress when others are present because

they assume someone else will help.- correct

In order to succeed in Aronson’s jigsaw classroom, students must

Cooperate – correct

Regarding statistics on the aggressiveness of the culture in the United States, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Greg has been very angry with a coworker. To limit his anger, Greg should
-learn to just let the anger go rather than holding on to it.
-​define these upsetting situations as problems to be solved.
-​learn to avoid problematic situations involving this coworker.

do all of these – correct

Which of the following is the method of reducing prejudice in which a student receives only a small segment of the information needed to complete a project or prepare for a test and then must share with others in the group?

the jigsaw classroom – correct

Regarding prejudice and direct experiences, which of the following statements is FALSE?

The desire to associate with others describes our need to

Regarding bystander intervention, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Empathic arousal is especially likely to motivate helping when the person in need seems to be different than ourselves.- correct

Aggression is best defined as

any action carried out with the intent of harming another person.- correct

Any behavior that has a positive impact on other people is referred to as

prosocial behavior – correct

​Common sources of prejudice include
-​a general personality trait known as authoritarianism.
-unfortunate experiences with members of the rejected group.
-adherence to group norms

all of these – correct

Which of the following are based on the human desires for approval, support, friendship, and love as well as a desire to alleviate fear and anxiety?

need to affiliate – correct

According to your textbook, the most crucial step in helping is

assuming responsibility – correct