DNA RNA And Molecular Biology – Biochemistry

In this chapter we discuss DNA RNA And Molecular Biology – Biochemistry.

Central principle/dogma of molecular biology:

genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein

Amino acids can’t do anything without template from DNA
DNA replicates its information (via many enzymes): REPLICATION
DNA codes for mRNA during transcription : TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA processed into proteins : TRANSLATION

What are Eicosanoids?

signaling molecules made by oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acids. They exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system. They are derived from either Omega 6 or 3 Fatty acids.

What is a buffer?

A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. If you add acid or base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Similarly, adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will not change the pH of a buffer.

What are the phases of detoxification? What enzymes are used?

• Hepatic enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics by first activating them
• Oxidation • Reduction • Hydrolysis • Hydration
• PhaseII:Conjugation • active secondary metabolite with
• Glucuronic acid • Sulphuric acid • Glutathione
• Followed by excretion in bile or urine.

What is a monosaccharide?

The most basic units of carbohydrates. Made of 1 aldehyde and 1 ketone. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and galactose.

What determines the lower limit of cell size

set by the minimum number of each type of biomolecule required by the cell

What is the upper limit of cell size

set by the rate of diffusion of solute molecules in aqueous systems

Who showed up first in evolution: autotrophs or heterotrophs?