Carbohydrate Protein in Human Body Biochemistry
This quiz is about Carbohydrate Protein in Human Body Biochemistry.
Nature uses the D or L form of carbohydrates
The two kinds of monosaccharides are
The bonds between carbohydrate monomers are called
Starches are polymers made exclusively from
The difference between amylose and amylopectin are
The structure (branched vs linear)
Dietary fiber is
Divided into soluble and insoluble
In the 2-compartment model for water in the body, water partitions into
Intracellular and extracellular
In the 3 compartment model for water in the body, the__________ compartment is further divided into interstitial and plasma compartments
Fluid in the blood is classified specifically as _________ fluid
In an ideally balanced human system water inputs would equal
An electrolyte is
c. charged molecule – correct
______________ ions account for nearly 90% of the positively charged ions found in extracellular fluid
The hormone aldosterone regulates the concentrations of _______ and ________ in the body.
Potassium ions and sodium ions
_______ is the most common extracelluar cation, while _________ is the most abundant intracellular cation.
The three most important buffer systems in body fluids include the bicarbonate buffer system, the ____ buffer system and the protein buffer system.
How is it possible for the rate and depth of breathing to affect hydrogen ion concentrations in body fluids?
The rate and depth of breathing does not alter hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids.
What is the normal pH of the blood?
What is the most significant plasma buffer?
Which of these is not a consequence of vomiting?
b. metabolic acidosis
c. respiratory alkalosis – correct
d. metabolic alkalosis
What is the most common intracellular buffer?
Which of the following is the product of trans-deaminiatio reactions
c. NH4 – correct
d. Carbonic acid
Which of the following terms is the total of all the breakdown processes in the body?
Amino acids that must be consumed in the diet are called
essential amino acids
The amino acid pool is
all the amino acids within the tissue and body fluids
Select the best definition of an enzyme
a. an enzyme is an amino acid that speeds up chemical reactions.
b. an enzyme is a protein that is consumed in the diet and aids in chemical reactions.
c. enzymes are proteins that speed up metabolic reactions and are destroyed in the process.
d. enzymes are proteins that speed up metabolic reactions and are not destroyed in the process. – correct
The bond that links to amino acids together is called
a peptide bond
There are a total of __ amino acids and _______ are considered essential
The side chain on an amino acid may include which element?
A small chain of amino acids is called a
Each amino acid contains
an amine group and a carboxyl group
Proteins are necessary for which of the following?
a. Muscle structure
b. Immune system function
c. Neurotransmitter production
d. All of the above – correct
Which of these food groups is not considered a good source of protein?
d. fruit – correct
What determines the three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule?
The order and chemical properties of the amino acids
The necessary coenzyme for the transamination reaction is
Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)
Which of the following statements about protein synthesis is false?
a. limiting amino acids can halt protein synthesis
b. nonessential amino acids can be made through transamination
c. amino acids needed for protein synthesis come from the amino acid pool
d. Essential amino acids can be made through transamination – correct
In transamination an amine group is transferred to ________ to form a nonessential amino acid.
Alpha keto acid
The NH3 produced in muscle degradation of amino acids and other nitrogenated compounds is transported through blood to the liver using ______ as a carrier
The 3 carbon alpha ketoacid formed from the oxidative deamination of alanine is
In oxidative deamination, an amine group is removed from an amino acid (usually glutamic acid) leaving ammonia and keto acid. In this process _________ is formed which can enter the electron transport chain.
Which of the following processes is involved in using proteins as a source of energy?
What biomolecule is formed at very high levels in the blood of PKU patients?
T/F Protein complementation combines foods containing proteins with different limiting amino acids in order to improve the protein quality of the diet.
T/F Proteins help keep fluids an pH balanced in the body
T/F Methionine is the only amino acid that contains sulfur.
False- cysteine also does
T/f Alanine exists as a zwitterion at a pH7
T/F Amino acid catabolism is increased during starvation
T/F The Urea cycle is regulated by an enzyme called CPS-1
T/F All amino acids are essential amino acids
T/F The major excretory product of amino acid catabolism is ammonia
T/F Protein synthesis is decreased during periods of growth.
False- increased during periods of growth
Ammonia is detoxified to urea via the urea cycle in the liver
Explain the major role of glutamate and alpha ketoglutarate in amino acid biosynthesis and degradation
They lose or gain an amine group to generate energy and create NH4 or NADH
An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid is called
What do we call the amino acids that human beings can synthesize?
How do humans obtain the amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body?
we eat them
Name two classes of protein in the body
How many common amino acids are there?
Which amino acid is not chiral?
Name the two classification of secondary structures found in proteins
The most common monomer of carbohydrate is
Aldoses and ketoses
A disaccharide is _____ monosaccharides joined together covalently by a________
2; Glycosidic bond
Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of
Glucose and fructose
Glucose, lactose and galactose are all _____ each other, in that they all have the molecular formula C6H12O6
Glucose is used for
b. Energy storage
c. Quick energy
d. All of the above – correct
Which carbohydrate is not digestible and provides fiber or “roughage” in humans?
Which carbohydrate does not come from plant sources
a. include glycogen, cellulose, and starch
b. consist of many glucose molecules bound together in long chains.
c. can be energy storage molecules
d. are polysaccharides.
e.all of these – correct
The brain relies almost entirely on _______ for energy production
For long-term storage, glucose is converted to _________ while for short-term storage glucose is converted to
Skeletal muscle cells derive most of their energy from
Which carbohydrate is formed from 2 glucose molecules?
Before the payoff phase of glycolysis can begin, the cell needs to invest _____ ATP
The energy currency of the cell is
Given these phases of aerobic respiration list the phases in order
1. Acetyl-coenzyme A formation
2. citric acid cycle
3. Electron-transport chain
4. Glycolysis – correct
1 acetyl-coenzyme A formation
3 Citric Acid cycle
2 Electron transport chain
During glycolysis, fructose and galactose enter the liver and are phosphorylated at carbon number
Anaerobic respiration produces _____________ ATPs and _____________ as a waste product
2, lactic acid
Aerobic respiration _____________ ATPs and _____ require oxygen
Which major metabolic product is produced under anaerobic conditions by muscle cells during intense exercise
The electron-carrier molecules that are used in electron-transport chain to generate additional ATP are
NADH and FADH2
NADH is produced
from the reduction of NAD
Besides ATP the end products of aerobic respiration are
carbon dioxide water
At the end of aerobic respiration all six carbon atoms from the glucose molecule are
found in carbon dioxide molecules
Excess glucose in the body following a meal can be stored in the liver as this is for use in the near future:
These events occur during the reactions of the citric acid cycle except:
a. ATP production
b. NADH and FADH2 production
c. Carbon dioxide formation
d. Water molecule formation – correct
This energy-requiring process forms larger molecules by joining together smaller molecules
During vigorous exercise, pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to
The process by which amino acids and glycerol can be converted to glucose is called
The energy released by oxidation of glucose is stored as
How many total ATP are made from the complete oxidation of 1 glucose molecule to CO2 and H2O
The 6-carbon molecule that is formed by the addition of acytyl CoA to ocaloacetate is
Amino acid carbon skeletons can be used to synthesize ________ or ________
Ketones or Glucose
The main site for gluconeogenesis is
Gluconeogenesis is the
Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors
The carbohydrate storage polysaccharide made by animals is
What are the storage polymers
Starch, cellulose, glycogen
A person who is lactose intolerant is deficient in which enzyme’s activity?
what do amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, and cellulose all have in common?
What condition is required in the cell for pyruvate to be converted to acetyl CoA
How many CO2 molecules are released during one round of the Citric Acid Cycle?
Which metabolic step is irreversible? What consequence does that have for gluconeogenesis?
Conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA – less efficient
Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
Where in the cell does the TCA cycle occur?
matrix of the mitochondria
What is the primary organ site for detoxification?
RNA can turn back into
DNA via Reverse Transcription
Difference between RNA and DNA
The hydroxy group on 2 prime carbon indicates RNA.