Carbohydrate Protein in Human Body Biochemistry

Carbohydrate Protein in Human Body Biochemistry

This quiz is about Carbohydrate Protein in Human Body Biochemistry.


Nature uses the D or L form of carbohydrates

D


The two kinds of monosaccharides are

Aldoses, Ketoses


The bonds between carbohydrate monomers are called

Glycosidic


Starches are polymers made exclusively from

Glucose


The difference between amylose and amylopectin are

The structure (branched vs linear)


Dietary fiber is

Complex Carbohydrates
Cellulose
Divided into soluble and insoluble


In the 2-compartment model for water in the body, water partitions into

Intracellular and extracellular


In the 3 compartment model for water in the body, the__________ compartment is further divided into interstitial and plasma compartments

extracellular


Fluid in the blood is classified specifically as _________ fluid

extracellular


In an ideally balanced human system water inputs would equal

Water outputs


An electrolyte is 
a) sugar
b. fat
c. charged molecule – correct
d water


______________ ions account for nearly 90% of the positively charged ions found in extracellular fluid

Sodium


The hormone aldosterone regulates the concentrations of _______ and ________ in the body.

Potassium ions and sodium ions


_______ is the most common extracelluar cation, while _________ is the most abundant intracellular cation.

Sodium, potassium


The three most important buffer systems in body fluids include the bicarbonate buffer system, the ____ buffer system and the protein buffer system.

Phosphate


How is it possible for the rate and depth of breathing to affect hydrogen ion concentrations in body fluids?

The rate and depth of breathing does not alter hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids.


What is the normal pH of the blood?

7.35-7.45


What is the most significant plasma buffer?

bicarbonate


Which of these is not a consequence of vomiting? 
a. dehydration
b. metabolic acidosis
c. respiratory alkalosis – correct
d. metabolic alkalosis


What is the most common intracellular buffer?

phosphate


Which of the following is the product of trans-deaminiatio reactions
a. urea
b. NH3
c. NH4 – correct
d. Carbonic acid


Which of the following terms is the total of all the breakdown processes in the body?

catabolism


Amino acids that must be consumed in the diet are called

essential amino acids


The amino acid pool is

all the amino acids within the tissue and body fluids


Select the best definition of an enzyme


a. an enzyme is an amino acid that speeds up chemical reactions.
b. an enzyme is a protein that is consumed in the diet and aids in chemical reactions.
c. enzymes are proteins that speed up metabolic reactions and are destroyed in the process.
d. enzymes are proteins that speed up metabolic reactions and are not destroyed in the process. – correct


The bond that links to amino acids together is called

a peptide bond


There are a total of __ amino acids and _______ are considered essential

20;9


The side chain on an amino acid may include which element?

Sulfur


A small chain of amino acids is called a

peptide


Each amino acid contains

an amine group and a carboxyl group


Proteins are necessary for which of the following? 
a. Muscle structure
b. Immune system function
c. Neurotransmitter production
d. All of the above – correct


Which of these food groups is not considered a good source of protein? 
a. meat
b. beans.
c. milk
d. fruit – correct


What determines the three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule?

The order and chemical properties of the amino acids


The necessary coenzyme for the transamination reaction is

Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)


Which of the following statements about protein synthesis is false? 


a. limiting amino acids can halt protein synthesis
b. nonessential amino acids can be made through transamination 
c. amino acids needed for protein synthesis come from the amino acid pool
d. Essential amino acids can be made through transamination – correct


In transamination an amine group is transferred to ________ to form a nonessential amino acid.

Alpha keto acid


The NH3 produced in muscle degradation of amino acids and other nitrogenated compounds is transported through blood to the liver using ______ as a carrier

alanine


The 3 carbon alpha ketoacid formed from the oxidative deamination of alanine is

Pyruvate


In oxidative deamination, an amine group is removed from an amino acid (usually glutamic acid) leaving ammonia and keto acid. In this process _________ is formed which can enter the electron transport chain.

NADH


Which of the following processes is involved in using proteins as a source of energy?

Keogenesis


What biomolecule is formed at very high levels in the blood of PKU patients?

phenylalanine


T/F Protein complementation combines foods containing proteins with different limiting amino acids in order to improve the protein quality of the diet.

True


T/F Proteins help keep fluids an pH balanced in the body

True


T/F Methionine is the only amino acid that contains sulfur.

False- cysteine also does


T/f Alanine exists as a zwitterion at a pH7

True


T/F Amino acid catabolism is increased during starvation

True


T/F The Urea cycle is regulated by an enzyme called CPS-1

True


T/F All amino acids are essential amino acids

False


T/F The major excretory product of amino acid catabolism is ammonia

False


T/F Protein synthesis is decreased during periods of growth.

False- increased during periods of growth


Ammonia is detoxified to urea via the urea cycle in the liver

True


Explain the major role of glutamate and alpha ketoglutarate in amino acid biosynthesis and degradation

They lose or gain an amine group to generate energy and create NH4 or NADH


An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid is called

edema


What do we call the amino acids that human beings can synthesize?

nonessential


How do humans obtain the amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body?

we eat them


Name two classes of protein in the body

structural enzymes


How many common amino acids are there?

20


Which amino acid is not chiral?

Glycine


Name the two classification of secondary structures found in proteins

alpha helix
beta sheet


The most common monomer of carbohydrate is

Glucose


Monosaccharides are

Aldoses and ketoses


A disaccharide is _____ monosaccharides joined together covalently by a________

2; Glycosidic bond


Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of

Glucose and fructose


Glucose, lactose and galactose are all _____ each other, in that they all have the molecular formula C6H12O6

isomers of


Glucose is used for


a. Structure
b. Energy storage
c. Quick energy
d. All of the above – correct


Which carbohydrate is not digestible and provides fiber or “roughage” in humans?

cellulose


Which carbohydrate does not come from plant sources

Lactose


Complex carbohydrates


a. include glycogen, cellulose, and starch
b. consist of many glucose molecules bound together in long chains.
c. can be energy storage molecules
d. are polysaccharides.
e.all of these – correct


The brain relies almost entirely on _______ for energy production

glucose


For long-term storage, glucose is converted to _________ while for short-term storage glucose is converted to

Fat, glycogen


Skeletal muscle cells derive most of their energy from

Glycogen


Which carbohydrate is formed from 2 glucose molecules?

Maltose


Before the payoff phase of glycolysis can begin, the cell needs to invest _____ ATP

2


The energy currency of the cell is

ATP


Given these phases of aerobic respiration list the phases in order
1. Acetyl-coenzyme A formation
2. citric acid cycle
3. Electron-transport chain
4. Glycolysis – correct

4 Glycolysis
1 acetyl-coenzyme A formation
3 Citric Acid cycle
2 Electron transport chain


During glycolysis, fructose and galactose enter the liver and are phosphorylated at carbon number

1


Anaerobic respiration produces _____________ ATPs and _____________ as a waste product

2, lactic acid


Aerobic respiration _____________ ATPs and _____ require oxygen

38 does


Which major metabolic product is produced under anaerobic conditions by muscle cells during intense exercise

Lactate


The electron-carrier molecules that are used in electron-transport chain to generate additional ATP are

NADH and FADH2


NADH is produced

from the reduction of NAD


Besides ATP the end products of aerobic respiration are

carbon dioxide water


At the end of aerobic respiration all six carbon atoms from the glucose molecule are

found in carbon dioxide molecules


Excess glucose in the body following a meal can be stored in the liver as this is for use in the near future:

Glycogen


These events occur during the reactions of the citric acid cycle except:


a. ATP production
b. NADH and FADH2 production
c. Carbon dioxide formation
d. Water molecule formation – correct


This energy-requiring process forms larger molecules by joining together smaller molecules

Anabolism


During vigorous exercise, pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to

lactate


The process by which amino acids and glycerol can be converted to glucose is called

Gluconeogenesis


The energy released by oxidation of glucose is stored as

ADP


How many total ATP are made from the complete oxidation of 1 glucose molecule to CO2 and H2O

38


The 6-carbon molecule that is formed by the addition of acytyl CoA to ocaloacetate is

Citrate


Amino acid carbon skeletons can be used to synthesize ________ or ________

Ketones or Glucose


The main site for gluconeogenesis is

The liver


Gluconeogenesis is the

Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors


The carbohydrate storage polysaccharide made by animals is

Glycogen


What are the storage polymers

Starch, cellulose, glycogen


A person who is lactose intolerant is deficient in which enzyme’s activity?

Lactase


what do amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, and cellulose all have in common?

starches


What condition is required in the cell for pyruvate to be converted to acetyl CoA

aerobic


How many CO2 molecules are released during one round of the Citric Acid Cycle?

2


Which metabolic step is irreversible? What consequence does that have for gluconeogenesis?

Conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA – less efficient


Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?

cytoplasm


Where in the cell does the TCA cycle occur?

matrix of the mitochondria


What is the primary organ site for detoxification?

Liver


RNA can turn back into

DNA via Reverse Transcription


Difference between RNA and DNA

The hydroxy group on 2 prime carbon indicates RNA.


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