Trait & REM Sleep – Psychology Exam

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Trait & REM Sleep – Psychology

The key terms of Psychology include Trait, Positive Relationship, Group Thinking, REM Sleep, Hypnotize, Genital Stage, Fixation, Behavior, Social Stereotype, Psychological Problem, Collaborative, Operational Stage.

Regarding happiness and holding religious beliefs, what kind of relationship is there?

  • a. No relationship
  • b. A negative relationship
  • c. A small positive relationship – correct
  • d. A high positive relationship

A large company sets up a friendly competition among all of its departments to increase worker safety. The members of the department with the best record in six months will be awarded four additional paid holidays. By having the workers in each department work together to win the competition, what is the company hoping to increase?

  • a. Group thinking
  • b. Group structure
  • c. Group cohesiveness – correct
  • d. Group compliance

Which of the following terms did Freud use very broadly to refer to many physical sources of pleasure?

  • a. Eros and thanatos
  • b. Psyche and ego ideal
  • c. Sex and erotic – correct
  • d. Fixation and sublimation

What characterizes the behavior of a person who has been hypnotized?

  • A. Most people will do anything they are asked to do under hypnosis, including violent acts against others.
  • B. Most people will not act out hypnotic suggestions that they consider immoral or repulsive.- correct
  • C. Most people are unaware of what is going on and, therefore, lack control of their behavior.
  • D. Most people can be hypnotized against their wills or without conscious knowledge that it is happening.

According to Gordon Allport, if a majority of people in North America show the trait of competitiveness, then, for North Americans, what type of trait would competitiveness be considered?

  • a. A common trait – correct
  • b. A cardinal trait
  • c. A secondary trait
  • d. A source trait

Paula has been a teacher for 20 years, and she is still trying to find new, creative ways to help her students learn. What would Erikson say Paula is exhibiting?

  • a. Initiative
  • b. Integrity
  • c. Generativity – correct
  • d. industry

According to research, which of the following has been shown to reduce insomnia, excessive anxiety, aggression, and the illegal use of psychoactive drugs?

  • A. mindfulness meditation – correct
  • B. hypersomnia
  • C. lucid dreaming
  • D. hypnosis

Lynn sleepwalks, while her younger brother has night terrors. Both of these sleep disturbances occur during what type of sleep?

  • a. Stage 1 NREM
  • b. REM sleep
  • c. Stage 4 NREM – correct
  • d. REM rebound

How do we typically make social comparisons?

  • A. randomly
  • B. on an absolute scale from good to bad
  • C. with people of professional status in their fields
  • D. with people of similar backgrounds and abilities – correct

A premature infant with a high-pitched cry, who engages in breath holding and remains passive when his or her face rolls into a pillow or blanket, should be monitored to prevent which of the following?

  • A. night terrors
  • B. infantile narcolepsy
  • C. congenital cataplexy
  • D. sudden infant death syndrome – correct

Essentially, what is self-actualization dependent on?

  • A. a person’s inherited potential – correct
  • B. the type of occupation a person has
  • C. the ability a person has in getting along with others
  • D. hard work, patience, and commitment

Although Maria has been working for the company for five years and always agrees to work late and on weekends, she has never received a raise. When she tried to ask her boss for a raise, she became tense and upset and gave up easily as soon as her boss said that “it was not the right time for a raise.” What would Maria benefit from practicing?

  • A. how to be more aggressive
  • B. how to be more collaborative
  • C. how to be self-assertive – correct
  • D. how to be mutually interdependent

How can experiences that are seriously incongruent with the self-image be BEST described?

  • A. They are actively sought by most people.
  • B. They are often distorted or blocked.- correct
  • C. They lead to peak experiences.
  • D. They are remembered in vivid detail.

According to the behaviorists, why does the link between permissiveness for sexual and aggressive behavior and adult needs for power probably occur?

  • A. Permitting such behaviours prevents the Oedipal and Electra complexes from being resolved.
  • B. Permitting such behaviours causes a fixation to occur at the phallic stage.
  • C. Permitting such behaviours causes incongruence between the individual’s real self and external reality.
  • D. Permitting such behaviours allows children to get pleasure from asserting themselves.- correct

When Sidney misbehaves, his mother takes away his phone privileges or his video game system. Sidney’s mother is using which discipline approach?

  • A. management techniques
  • B. legalistic
  • C. power assertion – correct
  • D. withdrawal of love

Which statement BEST describes shyness?

  • A. Shy people have somewhat lower self-esteem than non-shy people.
  • B. Shy people tend to blame circumstances for their social failures.
  • C. People’s shyness is often maintained by several unrealistic or self-defeating beliefs.- correct
  • D. Shy people still expect to be included in social encounters.

A child and her father are walking. The child knows there are such things as birds. Upon seeing a butterfly, she says, “See the birdie,” and her father replies, “No, that’s a butterfly; see how small it is.” Consequently, the child learns about butterflies. What does this example demonstrate?

  • A. assimilation
  • B. accommodation – correct
  • C. conservation
  • D. object permanence

What is the term for the “mental picture” you have of your own personality that is creatively built out of your daily experiences?

  • A. ideal self
  • B. ego ideal
  • C. self-concept – correct
  • D. self-esteem

The symptoms of a temporary sleep-deprivation psychosis include which of the following?

  • A. sudden, irresistible, daytime sleep attacks
  • B. hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation – correct
  • C. episodes of sleepwalking and sleep talking
  • D. narcolepsy and/or cataplexy

According to Allport, some traits are so basic that all of a person’s activities can be traced to the existence of these traits. What does Allport call such traits?

  • a. Common traits
  • b. Cardinal traits – correct
  • c. Central traits
  • d. Source traits

In his research on the stereotype threat, what did psychologist Claude Steele find when African-American college students were told that a task to be performed was a laboratory problem solving task and not a test of academic ability?

  • a. Their performance was significantly better than that of European-American college students
  • b. Their performance was slightly better than that of the European-American college students
  • c. Their performance was the same as that of the European-American college students – correct
  • d. Their performance was worse than that the European-American college students

Which of the following involves blaming a person or a group for the actions of others or for conditions not of their making?

a. Projection
b. Discrimination
c. Scapegoating – correct
d. Ethnocentrism

According to Miller and Dollard, what forms attitudes toward cleanliness and conformity?

  • a. Early feeding experiences
  • b. Toilet training – correct
  • c. Sex training
  • d. Androgynous training

Believing that people generally get what they deserve in life is referred to as what kind of belief?

  • A. Just-world
  • B. Multicultural – correct
  • C. Individualizing
  • D. Animistic

According to Freud, what is the term for the energy that flows from the life instincts and drives the personality?

  • a. The ego – correct
  • b. The libido
  • c. Thanatos
  • The conscience

How do we typically make social comparisons?

  • a. Randomly
  • b. On an absolute scale from good to bad
  • c. With people of professional status in their fields
  • d. With people of similar backgrounds and abilities – correct

Which of the following psychologists are major humanistic theorists

  • a. Allport and Cattell
  • b. Maslow and Rogers – correct
  • c. Mischel and Rotter
  • d. Dollard and Miller

Although Maria has been working for the company for five years and always agrees to work late and on weekends, she has never received a raise. When she tried to ask her boss for a raise, she became tense and upset and gave up easily as soon as her boss said that “it was not the right time for a raise.”. What would Maria benefit from practicing?

  • a. How to be more aggressive
  • b. How to be more collaborative
  • c. How to be self-assertive – correct
  • d. How to be mutually independent

For what purpose was the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) primarily designed?

  • a. To identify people with particular psychological problems – correct
  • b. For use with children under age ten
  • c. For use with the intellectual disabled
  • d. To identify vocational preferences

By playing violent video games and watching TV programs in which his super hero’s fight the villains, what is Anton likely to experience?

  • a. Desentization to violence – correct
  • b. An inhibition to violence
  • c. A catharsis of pent-up aggressive urges
  • d. Increased empathy for the victims of violence

Helens mother took three year old Helen to a birthday party in the neighborhood. Although her mother encouraged her to play with the other children, Helen did not say a word to any child but sat quietly by her mother watching the other children. What type of child would Thomas and Chess probably describe Helen as?

  • a. Easy
  • b. Slow to warm up – correct
  • c. Difficult
  • d. Immature

What is the detached part of the hypnotized persons awareness that silently observes events known as?

  • a. The actualized self
  • b. The phantom observer
  • c. The hidden observer – correct
  • d. The alter ego

Tara just spend an hour in a floatation tank where stimuli were restricted. As a result, what is she most likely experiencing?

  • a. Deep relaxation – correct
  • b. Hallucinations
  • c. Imagery rehearsal
  • d. Tryptophanic images

Jake is playing hide and seek with his mother. Jake runs over to the couch and hides his head under a pillow. Because Jake cannot see anything, he doesn’t think his mother can see him. Jake is exhibiting a behavioral characteristic of which of Piaget’s cognitive stages of development?

  • A. Post formal stage
  • B. Concrete operational stage
  • C. Formal operational stage
  • D. Preoperational stage – correct

What is the assumption that “all only children are selfish” an example of?

  • a. Dogmatic image
  • b. Social stereotype – correct
  • c. Symbol prejudice
  • d. Justified image

Five year old ryan likes to spend as much time as he can with his dad and often tells people that “his dad is the smartest, strongest, and best dad in the whole world.” According to social learning theorists, what is Ryan demonstrating?

  • a. Fixation on his dad
  • b. Congruence with his dad
  • c. Imitation of his dad
  • d. Identification with his dad – correct

In which parental style is there a healthy and effective balance between the rights of parents and their children?

  • a. Authoritarian
  • b. Permissive
  • c. Authoritative – correct
  • d. Collaborative

Regarding their visual capabilities, by what age will babies be able to see as well as their parents? Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question

  • a. 2 months
  • b. 6 months
  • c. 9 months
  • d. 1 year – correct

Larry believes that members of another ethnic group are hostile and unfriendly. However, Larry tends to inadvertently treat people in that group that actually provoke hostile and unfriendly responses, thus reinforcing his stereotype. What is Larry unknowingly creating?

  • a. Groupthink
  • b. A just world belief
  • c. A self fulfilling prophecy – correct
  • d. Individuating information

According to Freud, which of the following begins with an upswing in sexual energies, which activates all the unresolved conflicts of earlier years and results in the adolescent being filled with emotion and turmoil?

  • a. Phallic stage
  • b. Genital stage – correct
  • c. Latency period
  • d. Stage of incongruence