Sleep Memory & Life Development – Psychology

Sleep Memory Life Development Psychology

This chapter is about Sleep Memory & Life Development Psychology.


According to Carol Ryff, all of the following are associated with well-being during adulthood except ____________.

a critical review of one’s life. – correct


Which of the following is stressed in the professional code of ethics?

Respects for people’s right to privacy – correct


Steve used to love dogs but was badly bitten by a stray dog once. Now he is extremely fearful when he sees and dog nearing him. This is an example of ________________.

a conditioned emotional response


When a tone is sounded, a baby’s right cheek is touched, and the baby reflexively turns its head to the direction of the touch. After several pairings, the baby turns its head to the right as soon as it hears the tone. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is the ____________.

tone


Karen and her husband are very prejudiced, Their daughter Nikki, although only a small child, also reacts very negatively to people who are different from her. Her emotional response is most likely due to ____________.

vicarious classical conditioning


In which of Kubler-Ross’s stages would someone who feels exhausted and has a sense of futility be?

depression


Denny was born weighing only five pounds, with a small head, thin upper lip, and oddly shaped eyes. He is also mentally retarded. Denny’s mother most likely used which of the following during her pregnancy?

alcohol


The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior is known as _____.

learning


All human emotions appear by _____________.

age 1.


Psychology’s history as a science began _____.

In Germany, when Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879.


In Lawrence Kohlberg’s research on moral development, reasoning that is based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted authority, rules, and values is labeled the ______ level.

conventional


Empirical evidence is collected by _____.

gathering qualitative and quantitative data through direct observation


The correct order for the three stages of memory is _____.

sensory register memory, short-term memory, long-term memory


Freud’s psychodynamic theory of dreaming emphasizes _____.

dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment


When a toddler uses simple two-word sentences to communicate, it is referred to as _________. 

telegraphic speech


In Ainsworth’s study, a baby who seemed disinterested in the mother’s comings and goings, turning away from her when she returned, was labeled _____________.

insecure-avoidant.


A child who develops to be dependent and immature most likely had parents who followed which types of parenting style?

permissive


David punishes his puppy (by placing the dog in a “time-out” box for several minutes) for soiling the rug when he comes home from work. Which rule of punishment has David broken?

It needs to be immediate.


In life-span developmental theories, adolescents struggle with conflicts involving _____.

the need to form a consistent identity.


Psychology is defined as the scientific study of _____.

behavior and mental processes


Children who are rebellious and aggressive are often the products of which of the following styles of discipline?

power assertion


Information is transferred from sensory memory to _____ by means of _____.

short term memory; selective attention


Taking a multiple choice test is based on what kind of memory retrieval?

recognition


The procedure by which each subject in a study has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental and control group is called _____________.

random assignment.


In a scientific experiment, a _________ is any condition that can change and that might affect the outcome of the experiment.

variable


In which stages of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake?

Stage 4


The life expectancy of the average cigarette smoker is reduced by _____________.

10 – 15 years


Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it.

increase; decrease


How many stages is the life cycle are presented in Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development?

8


A hereditary problem in which the victim has irresistible “sleep attacks” in the day is called ____________.

narcolepsy.


If most of your textbook pages are highlighted with a yellow highlighter, you have probably violated which of the following methods for improving memory?

selection


Which of the following refers to memories for skills such as tying shoes?

procedural


Joe takes an herbal supplement for pain in his knees. A few days after starting the supplement, his pain seems to decrease and he tells people that this supplement is wonderful at controlling knee pain. What else could explain Joe’s diminished pain?

the placebo effect


Which of the following would be studied by a researcher in the field of positive psychology?

the factors that may enhance an individual’s creativity


If neither the subjects nor the experimenter know which subjects get the true independent variable and which gets the placebo, the study is called a _____ experiment.

double-blind


The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated is labeled as Piaget’s _____ stage of cognitive development.

sensorimotor


If you hear that an airplane crashes into the Empire State Building, and you immediately think of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, you are reacting to what type of memory?

a flashbulb memory


Carol Gilligan pointed out that existing studies on moral development are biased because ____________.

a woman’s concern with relatives can look like a weakness rather than a strength.


Forgetting because we never really formed the memory in the first place is termed _____________.

encoding failure.


In classical conditioning, _____ are important, while in operant conditioning, _____ are primary for learning.

antecedents; consequences


After being awake for more than 60 hours, a person may develop hallucinations and delusional thinking in a state called __________.

sleep deprivation psychosis.


Psychologists who study human thinking and information processing abilities are referred to as _____.

Cognitive psychologists


If parents ignore a child’s temper tantrums and the tantrums subsequently cease, _____ has occurred.

operant extinction


What did functionalism contribute?

It promoted educational psychology.


Operant conditioning operates on the principle that behaviors occur more often when they are _____.

reinforced


The bulk of people’s dreams occur during _____.

REM sleep


People who believe that a new diet is safe and effective because a doctor wrote the book are forgetting that ______________.

authority does not automatically make an idea true.


________ refers to the genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to children and _________ refers to the sum of all external conditions that affect a person.

nature; nurture


When looking at ethnic differences in parenting, the following cultures tend to be group oriented, and they emphasize interdependence among individuals:

Asian-American


Which of the following is true of NREM sleep?

It may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.


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