Social Learning & Spontaneous Recovery – Psychology

Social Learning & Spontaneous Recovery – Psychology

This quiz covers social learning and spontaneous recovery of psychology.


Marvin sees on the work schedule that he is assigned to work with the manager that he doesn’t like. So Marvin calls into work sick that night. He enjoyed not having to listen to the manager yell at everyone, so he does the same thing the next two times they are scheduled for the same shift. What is Marvin engaging in?

a. Avoidance learning   -correct
b. Latent learning
c. Observational learning
d. Social learning

Which of the following is an example of a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement?

a. Receiving money every Saturday for doing chores  -correct
b. Catching four fish in a day
c. Checking for social media “likes”
d. Playing a slot machine

In operant conditioning, the learner’s response can be described as ________.

a. voluntary and spontaneous  – correct
b. involuntary and reflexive
c. voluntary and reflexive
d. involuntary and spontaneous

Which of the following defines negative reinforcement?

a. Any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again
b. Removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is made
c. Weakening of a learned response when it is no longer followed by reinforcement
d. Strengthening a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment   – correct

Which of the following methods is primarily characterized by presenting information in small amounts, offering immediate practice, and providing continuous feedback to learners?

a. Programmed instruction  – correct
b. Cognitive mapping
c. Educational simulation
d. Guided discovery

Which of the following terms describes nonlearned reinforcers that usually satisfy physiological needs?

a. Primary  – correct
b. Discriminative
c. Secondary
d. Token

Amber is conducting research to condition rats to press a lever for a food reward. During week two of the study, the rats are given a food pellet every six minutes, regardless of how many times they press the lever. Which type of reinforcement schedule is Amber using?

a. Fixed interval  – correct
b. Fixed ratio
c. Variable ratio
d. Variable interval

When the big new high school opened, students asked friends and staff in the hallways to help them locate their classrooms, lockers and other locations. At first it was a funny chaotic adventure, but within a few days, the students were bustling around easily from place to place, just like in the old school. What enabled the students to quickly master the new facility?

a. Cognitive maps  – correct
b. Rote learning
c. Guided discovery
d. Knowledge of results

Which of the following may occur if a learned operant response is not reinforced?

a. Extinction  – correct
b. Latency
c. Avoidance
d. Discrimination

Which of the following, whether positive or negative, increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated?

a. Consequence
b. Punishment
c. Reinforcement  -correct
d. Stimulus

A therapist who helps patients overcome a fear of heights by gradually exposing them to locations of increasing height is employing ________.

a. programmed instruction
b. stimulus generalization  – correct
c. stimulus discrimination
d. systematic desensitization

The partial reinforcement effect is focused on which of the following?

a. Extinction  – correct
b. Punishment
c. Discrimination
d. Desensitization

Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?

a. Water  – correct
b. Praise
c. Money
d. Affection

Thorndike’s law of effect is primarily focused on which of the following?

a. Consequences   – correct
b. Stimuli
c. Reinforcements
d. Ethics

One of the drawbacks of using punishment to manage behavior is that the person it is applied to can experience elevated levels of ________.

a. aggression  – correct
b. depression
c. mania
d. withdrawal

A classroom of third-grade children who recite the multiplication tables aloud every morning demonstrateS which type of learning?

a. Rote  – correct
b. Latent
c. Programmed
d. Discovery

Learning from models is primarily based on what two factors?

a. Exploring and understanding
b. Observing and imitating   – correct
c. Discovering and generalizing
d. Responding and reinforcing

A learned response that is exhibited following an extended period of absence has undergone ________.

a. spontaneous recovery  – correct
b. stimulus discrimination
c. systematic desensitization
d. token reinforcement

As a young teenager riding in the car to her grandparents’ house, Malika always noticed the various landmarks, highway exits, and street signs. When she got her license, she drove to visit her grandparents by herself, without once having to turn on the GPS or ask for directions. Malika is demonstrating ________.

a. latent learning – correct
b. rote learning
c. discovery learning
d. programmed instruction

Professional athletes often donate time and money to various community programs and nonprofit organizations, with their efforts documented by cameras, social media, and news stories. In addition to helping people in need, the athletes hope their celebrity status will encourage others to perform similar actions through the process of ________.

a. observational learning  – correct
b. discovery learning
c. operant conditioning
d. behavioral contracts

The partial reinforcement effect is focused on which of the following?

Extinction


A therapist who helps patients overcome a fear of heights by gradually exposing them to locations of increasing height is employing ________.

systematic desensitization


Professional athletes often donate time and money to various community programs and nonprofit organizations, with their efforts documented by cameras, social media, and news stories. In addition to helping people in need, the athletes hope their celebrity status will encourage others to perform similar actions through the process of ________.

observational learning


Thorndike’s law of effect is primarily focused on which of the following?

Consequences


Learning from models is primarily based on what two factors?

Observing and imitating


In operant conditioning, the learner’s response can be described as ________.

voluntary and spontaneous


One of the drawbacks of using punishment to manage behavior is that the person it is applied to can experience elevated levels of ________.

aggression


Amber is conducting research to condition rats to press a lever for a food reward. During week two of the study, the rats are given a food pellet every six minutes, regardless of how many times they press the lever. Which type of reinforcement schedule is Amber using?

Fixed interval


Which of the following defines negative reinforcement?

Strengthening a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment


As a young teenager riding in the car to her grandparents’ house, Malika always noticed the various landmarks, highway exits, and street signs. When she got her license, she drove to visit her grandparents by herself, without once having to turn on the GPS or ask for directions. Malika is demonstrating ________.

latent learning


A classroom of third-grade children who recite the multiplication tables aloud every morning demonstrates which type of learning?

Rote


A learned response that is exhibited following an extended period of absence has undergone ________.

spontaneous recovery


Marvin sees on the work schedule that he is assigned to work with the manager that he doesn’t like. So Marvin calls into work sick that night. He enjoyed not having to listen to the manager yell at everyone, so he does the same thing the next two times they are scheduled for the same shift. What is Marvin engaging in?

Avoidance learning


Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?

Water


When the big new high school opened, students asked friends and staff in the hallways to help them locate their classrooms, lockers and other locations. At first it was a funny chaotic adventure, but within a few days, the students were bustling around easily from place to place, just like in the old school. What enabled the students to quickly master the new facility?

Cognitive maps


Which of the following is an example of a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement?

Receiving money every Saturday for doing chores


Which of the following, whether positive or negative, increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated?

Reinforcement


Which of the following may occur if a learned operant response is not reinforced?

Extinction


Which of the following methods is primarily characterized by presenting information in small amounts, offering immediate practice, and providing continuous feedback to learners?

Programmed instruction


Which of the following terms describes nonlearned reinforcers that usually satisfy physiological needs?

Primary


Which of the following two factors play the most important role in shaping human development?

Heredity and enviornment


According to an influential theory, what is the most common temperament of newborn babies?

Easy children, who are relaxed and agreeable


In general, muscular control of infants spreads in a pattern from the center of the body to the extremities, which is known as _______.

proximodistal development


Which of the following is a disadvantage of early maturation?

It may force premature identity formation.


According to Erikson, how does a psychosocial dilemma dictate one’s behavior?

It is the struggle between an individual’s personal impulses and the social world.


According to Erikson, which of the following is a characteristic psychosocial dilemma faced by adolescents (12-19 years)?

Identity versus role confusion


According to Baumrind, which one of the following is a characteristic of the parenting style of overly permissive parents?

The parents do not hold children accountable for their actions


Which one of the following most accurately represents parenting in African American families?

Self-reliance, resourcefulness, and an ability to take care of oneself in difficult situations are qualities that parents seek to promote in their children.


A recognition that physical things continue to exist even when they are no longer visible is known as _______.

object permanence


According to Piaget, which of the following is a characteristic of the preoperational stage?

Children begin to think symbolically but engage in intuitive thought.


Which of the following is Piaget’s term for the awareness that physical quantities stay constant despite changes in shape or appearance?

Conservation


Lee has vitiligo, a skin condition where he loses pigment in his skin, but neither of Lee’s parents have this condition. Which of the following reasons best describes how Lee developed this condition?

Lee received a recessive gene from each parent for the condition.


Mary places headphones on her pregnant belly so that her baby can hear classical music. She notices that her baby moves less as a result of the soft, soothing music. What type of environment is being impacted by the music?

Intrauterine


Kisha’s daughter, Emma, is eight months old. Kisha holds her up for several hours each day in an effort to get Emma to stand and walk on her own. About a month later, Emma stands by herself holding onto a table. What influence, if any, might Kisha have had on Emma’s ability to stand on her own?

Kisha had very little influence on Emma’s ability to stand. Emma was ready to stand around this time anyway without additional training from Kisha


Kinsley is eleven months old and smiles every time her mommy enters the room. What significance does this have?

This is a social reaction exhibited when people are close by


Tatiana is 7 months old and has already begun to babble. Which of the following factors will have the most influence over the particular way in which Tatiana babbles?

The language spoken by Tatiana’s parents


Piaget and Vygotsky differed on a number of cognitive concepts. Which of the following best describes where they were similar?

Both believed that children actively seek to discover new principles within their environments.


Alexis is a sixty-year-old woman who has a good job and lives a comfortable life but lives alone. Yet she seems unhappy and somewhat aimless with longer-term goals. Which of the following is she likely struggling with?

Generativity


Andre has matured early for his age. Which of the following can be expected of Andre when compared to boys who mature later?

Andre will be more likely to get into trouble with drugs, alcohol, and sex


Kristen applied for a job, and when she went in for the interview, the manager told her she was “too old” for this position. He thanked for her time and said she would not be moving on to the next phase. Which of the following did Kristen experience?

Ageism


Which of the following may occur if a learned operant response is not reinforced?

Extinction


A learned response that is exhibited following an extended period of absence has undergone ________.

spontaneous recovery


A therapist who helps patients overcome a fear of heights by gradually exposing them to locations of increasing height is employing ________.

systematic desensitization


Which of the following defines negative reinforcement?

Strengthening a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment


Thorndike’s law of effect is primarily focused on which of the following?

Consequences


One of the drawbacks of using punishment to manage behavior is that the person it is applied to can experience elevated levels of ________.

aggression


Which of the following terms describes nonlearned reinforcers that usually satisfy physiological needs?

Primary


The partial reinforcement effect is focused on which of the following?

Extinction


Which of the following is an example of a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement?

Receiving money every Saturday for doing chores


A classroom of third-grade children who recite the multiplication tables aloud every morning demonstrates which type of learning?

Rote


Learning from models is primarily based on what two factors?

Observing and imitating


In operant conditioning, the learner’s response can be described as ________.

voluntary and spontaneous


Which of the following methods is primarily characterized by presenting information in small amounts, offering immediate practice, and providing continuous feedback to learners?

Programmed instruction


Which of the following, whether positive or negative, increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated?

Reinforcement


Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?

Water


Amber is conducting research to condition rats to press a lever for a food reward. During week two of the study, the rats are given a food pellet every six minutes, regardless of how many times they press the lever. Which type of reinforcement schedule is Amber using?

Fixed interval


Marvin sees on the work schedule that he is assigned to work with the manager that he doesn’t like. So Marvin calls into work sick that night. He enjoyed not having to listen to the manager yell at everyone, so he does the same thing the next two times they are scheduled for the same shift. What is Marvin engaging in?

Avoidance learning


When the big new high school opened, students asked friends and staff in the hallways to help them locate their classrooms, lockers and other locations. At first it was a funny chaotic adventure, but within a few days, the students were bustling around easily from place to place, just like in the old school. What enabled the students to quickly master the new facility?

Cognitive maps


As a young teenager riding in the car to her grandparents’ house, Malika always noticed the various landmarks, highway exits, and street signs. When she got her license, she drove to visit her grandparents by herself, without once having to turn on the GPS or ask for directions. Malika is demonstrating ________.

latent learning


Professional athletes often donate time and money to various community programs and nonprofit organizations, with their efforts documented by cameras, social media, and news stories. In addition to helping people in need, the athletes hope their celebrity status will encourage others to perform similar actions through the process of ________.

observational learning


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