### Quasi-Independent Variable, Measurement, Survey, Sample, Variable – STATISTIC

The key terms in these Statistic chapters include Survey, Sample, Dependent Variable, Set of Instructions, Population,Scale of Measurement, Social Skill Training, Independent Variable, Parameter, Sample And A Population, Summation Notation, Measurement, Ordinal, Research Study, Quasi-Independent Variable.

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of American college students. Based on the set of 56 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 4.1 hours each week working on course material outside of class. For this study, the set of 56 students who returned surveys is an example of a(n)

**Sample**

For an experiment comparing two methods for teaching social skill training to autistic children, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.

**teaching methods; the social skills**

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

**sample**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of American college students. Based on the set of 56 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 4.1 hours each week working on course material outside of class. For this study, the average of 4.1 hours is an example of a(n) _______.

**Statistic**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

**a quasi-independent variable**

A researcher is curious about the average monthly cell phone bill for high school students in the state of Florida. If this average could be obtained, it would be an example of a ______.

**parameter**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of American college students. The group of American college students is an example of a(n)

**Population**

Although a research study is typically conducted with a relatively small group of participants known as a _________, most researchers hope to generalize their results to a much larger group known as a _________.

**sample; population**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**a sample and a population**

Statistical methods that organize, summarize, or simplify data are called _______.

**descriptive statistics**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of American college students. The group of American college students is an example of a(n)

**Population**

A characteristic, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample is called a _______.

**statistic**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen, and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.

**statistic**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

**a quasi-independent variable**

For an experiment comparing two methods for teaching social skill training to autistic children, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.

**teaching methods; the social skills that are learned**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**A Sample and a population**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

**the gender of each student in a psychology class**

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?

**the amount of time to solve a problem**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a _____ variable.

**Dependent**

Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

Determining the class standing (1st, 2nd, and so on) for the graduating seniors at a high school would involve measurement on a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

Quasi-Independent Variable – Statistic Homework

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an interval scale compared to a ordinal scale?

**the size of the difference**

For an experiment comparing two methods for teaching social skill training to autistic children, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.

**teaching methods; the social skills **

The average verbal SAT score for the entire class of entering freshmen is 530. However, if you select a sample of 20 freshmen and compute their average verbal SAT score you probably will not get exactly 530. What statistical concept is used to explain the natural difference that exists between a sample mean and the corresponding population mean?

**sampling error**

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**the amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of American college students. The group of American college students is an example of a(n)

**Population**

A recent study reports that elementary school students who were given a nutritious breakfast each morning had higher test scores than students who did not receive the breakfast. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**whether or not breakfast was given to the students**

In a correlational study

**2 variables are measured and there is only 1 group of participants**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen, and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.

**Statistic**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

**a quasi-independent variable**

In an experimental study

**1 variable is measured and 2 groups are compared**

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**the amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

Determining a person’s reaction time (in milliseconds) would involve measurement on a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ratio**

After measuring two individuals, a researcher can say that Tom’s score is 4 points higher than Bill’s. The measurements must come from a(n) _______ scale.

**Interval or ratio**

What is the first step to be performed in the following mathematical expression? (ΣX)^2

**Add the scores**

**teaching methods; the social skills **

What is the final step to be performed in the following mathematical expression? (ΣX)^2?

**Square the sum of the scores**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**A Sample and a population**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

**the gender of each student in a psychology class**

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?

**the amount of time to solve a problem**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a _____ variable.

**Dependent**

Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

Determining the class standing (1st, 2nd, and so on) for the graduating seniors at a high school would involve measurement on a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

What is the final step to be performed when computing Σ(X – 2)^2?

**sum the squared values**

You are instructed to subtract four points from each score and find the sum of the resulting values. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

**Σ(X – 4)**

**teaching methods; the social skills **

You are instructed to subtract four points from each score, square the resulting value, and find the sum of the squared numbers. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

**Σ(X – 4)^2**

**population**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**a sample and a population**

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?

**the amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

**Population**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen, and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.

**Statistic**

**a quasi-independent variable**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**a sample and a population**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

**the gender of each student in a psychology class**

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?

**the amount of time to solve a problem**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a _____ variable.

**Dependent**

Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

Determining the class standing (1st, 2nd, and so on) for the graduating seniors at a high school would involve measurement on a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

**the amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

The relationship between a statistic and a parameter is the same as the relationship between ______.

**a sample and a population**

**the amount of St. Johns Wort given to each participant**

**population**

**statistic**

**dependent**

**ordinal**

**ordinal**

Quasi-Independent Variable – Statistic Homework