Government & World History

This lesson is about government & world history including human history.

old stone age/ paleolithic

the early period in human history in which humans used simple stone tools. the people were hunters and gatherers

new stone age/ neolithic

changed from the old stone age when people shifted from hunting animals and gathering food to keeping animals and growing food on a regular basis (systematic agriculture)

effects of neolithic revolution

-more stable food supply
-domestication of animals
-settled villages
-increased population


the period of time before writing was invented and scientists relied on archaeological and biological evidence


the period of time when writing was invented

mesopotamian cities/ sumerian city-states

there were 12 of these, each with their own government

fertile crescent/ crossroads of the world

an arc of land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf

homo sapiens sapiens

“wise, wise humans”
species that appeared in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago; they were the first anatomically modern humans

sumerian inventions

wagon wheel, sundial, arch, bronze, number system based on 60, constellation charts, advancements in math and astronomy


a state with political and economical control over the surrounding countryside


the study of past societies through analysis of what people left behind


the study of human life and culture

radiocarbon dating

modern scientific method for telling age of once living material by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon remaining in it

homo habilis

“handy human”
somewhat larger brain
may have used stone tools


the species that descended from homo sapiens; first found in a valley in Germany. were the first people who buried their dead and used stone tools. they lived between 100,000 & 30,000 BC

sumerian economy

based chiefly on farming, but included trade and industry as well

sumerian society

three classes:
nobles- kings and priests/priestesses
commoners- farmers, merchants, artisans, fisherman
slaves- owned by palace officials and rich land owners

neolithic farming villages

permanent settlements that contained only a few roads on which lay simple mud brick houses. had walls around the villages. specialization of labor began and religion was beginning to become more important


the first epic poem was written about him and teaches the people that immortality is only for the gods: written by the Sumeritans


a person specially trained to read, write, and keep records


belief in many gods


a government established by the divine authority


massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of sumerian city


way of life for a group of people studied by anthropologists and includes language, behavior, and belief

define and describe the term civilization

is a complex culture in which large numbers of people share a number of common elements

use the characteristics of civilization to describe the Sumerian way of life

Sumer was an early civilization that exemplified all the characteristics of civilization: cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art. Sumerians exemplified cities by the way they lived- in city states. A city-state was a state with political and economic control over the surrounding country-side. The Sumerian government was a theocracy, which was a government established by divine authority. The king was believed to have derived power from the gods, therefore, the people must obey the king so as not to anger the gods. Aided by the government, army, priests, and priestesses, the king led armies, organized workers, and supervised construction. The social structure of Sumer had three classes: nobles, commoners, and slaves. The nobles included the kings and priests; the commoners included the farmers, merchants, artisans (craftspeople), and fisherman. The slaves were owned by the palace officials or sometimes rich landowners, and included people who were captured or in debt. The Sumerian writing system was called cunieform. The people used a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets. Mesopotamian peoples primarily used writing for record keeping, training scribes, passing down information, and writing literature. Sumerians had different forms of art, including literature and and architecture