# Correlational Research – Final Exam STATS

## Correlational Research, Independent Variable, Research Study

The key terms in these Statistics chapters include Independent Variable, Survey, Parameter, Correlational, Dependent Variable, Population, Research Study, Sample, Sum of Squared Deviations, Hobbies, Subjective Well-Being, Aggression, Correlational Research, Distribution, Random, Hypothesis.

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

##### Correlational

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

##### Sample

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

Alcohol consumption

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

The increase or the decrease in sales

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

#### 12

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the dependent variable?

Risky behavior

A researcher is interested in the relationship between caffeine consumption and level of stress. S/he has participants keep a diary for one week during which they count the number of cups of coffee, tea, and cola-based soft drinks they consume, as well as recording consumption of chocolate and medications that have caffeine as an ingredient. In addition, participants complete a measure of “daily hassles” experienced during the week.

##### Correlational

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the independent variable?

Whether she has similar interests or different interests

Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going through a hazardous hazing ritual. What is the dependent variable? whether or not the student experiences a hazardous hazing ritual

Commitment level

Researchers are interested in influences on self-esteem. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. Participants are given a set of anagram problems to solve in a five minute time limit. Half are randomly assigned to receive very easy anagrams, and half are given difficult ones. After completing as many of the anagrams as they can, participants are given a questionnaire labeled “Thoughts and Feelings Questionnaire” that is really a measure of self-esteem. What kind of research design is this?

##### Experimental

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

Hypothesis.

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Event-based

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the dependent variable?

Attraction level

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

Sample

A sample consists of n = 16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the range?

#### 2

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

#### 12

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution

Researchers (Reifman, Larrick, and Fein, 1988) were interested in the factors causing aggression. They looked at an entire baseball season’s worth of news reports. For each game, they recorded the temperature of the locale, and the number of batters who were hit by pitched balls. What kind of research design is this?

Correlational

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

##### Correlational

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

##### Sample

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

Alcohol consumption

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

The increase or the decrease in sales

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the dependent variable?

Risky behavior

Vera thinks that having pets increases psychological functioning and well-being. To test this, one group of randomly selected nursing home residents is each given a pet while a second group is not. Over two months, the overall level of psychological functioning is evaluated on a daily basis. What is the independent variable in this study?

Whether or not the residents received a pet

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the independent variable?

Whether she has similar interests or different interests

Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going through a hazardous hazing ritual. What is the dependent variable? whether or not the student experiences a hazardous hazing ritual

##### Commitment level

Random assignment is a defining feature of an experiment. It means that

Whether participants are in one condition or another is determined at random.

Professor Collison studies the impact of violent video games on aggression. Aggression is the _____ in this research.

Dependent variable

A factor other than the independent variable that varies between conditions of an experiment is called a(n)

##### Confound

A study is said to have internal validity if the researcher can be relatively confident that

Changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

Hypothesis.

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Event-based

Participants who are subjected to all of the experimental procedures except the experimental manipulation are called

##### Controls

Johanna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. Each evening around 6 p.m.,

Johanna is supposed to record in a journal the number of social interactions she had that day that were longer in duration than 5 minutes. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Interval-contingent

An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena is called a(n)

Theory.

A study that examines existing records or databases is referred to as a

##### Archival Study

Johanna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. At random times during the day, she receives a text message to which she responds with information about who she was with and how happy she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Signal-contingent

Which of the following is an example of a negative correlation?

The more alcohol you consume, the lower your GPA tends to be.

An accomplice of the experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant is called a(n)

Confederate

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

##### Correlational

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

##### Sample

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

Alcohol consumption

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

The increase or the decrease in sales

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the dependent variable?

Risky behavior

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the independent variable?

Whether she has similar interests or different interests

Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going through a hazardous hazing ritual. What is the dependent variable? whether or not the student experiences a hazardous hazing ritual

Commitment level

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

##### Hypothesis

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Event-based

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the dependent variable?

Attraction level

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

#### 12

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

Correlational

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

##### Correlational

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

##### Sample

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

Alcohol consumption

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

The increase or the decrease in sales

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

12

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the dependent variable?

Risky behavior

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the independent variable?

Whether she has similar interests or different interests

Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going through a hazardous hazing ritual. What is the dependent variable? whether or not the student experiences a hazardous hazing ritual

Commitment level

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

##### Hypothesis

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

Event-based

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the dependent variable?

Attraction level

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

Paying artist or not paying artists

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

##### Parameter

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

#### 12

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

Alcohol consumption

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

The increase or the decrease in sales

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

12

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