Constitution Development – US Government HW

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Constitution Development – US Government HW

The key terms of the US government chapter include Constitution, Development, Government.


Second Treatise of Government

Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.


Shay’s Rebellion

Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.


social contract

A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.


state of nature

The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.


Three-fifths Compromise

Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)


Anti-Federalist

During the debate over the ratification of the US Constitution they argued that the Constitution would erode fundamental liberties and weaken the states.


Articles of Confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)


authoritarian regimes

A government that concentrates political power in an authority not responsible to the people


Bill of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.


consent of the governed

Agreement by citizens to obey the laws and the government they create. Consent is the foundation of government’s legitimacy.


democracy

A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them


direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives


An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution

A Book written in 1913 by Charles Beard. He believed that the founders created the constitution to benefit their economic interest.


elite theory

A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.


electoral college

A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president


Federalist Papers

A series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name “publius”) published in NY newspapers and used to convince readers to adopt the new constitution


Federalist #10

An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.


Federalists

A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.


formal amendment process

Article V; the (very difficult) process of adding or deleting words to the constitution (27 times since 1788); propose by 2/3 vote of Congress or Constitutional Convention (never used); ratify by 3/4 vote of state legislators or state convention (only used once)


The Great Compromise

2 houses, House of Representatives would be based on population, the senate would have 2 representatives from each state


informal amendment process

Changing the meaning of the Constitution without a formal amendment (ex. Supreme Court opinions, laws, custom)


judicial review

Review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court


Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review


John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property; consent of the governed


majoritarianism

A political theory holding that in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of the people want.


natural rights

Jefferson used Natural Rights in the declaration of Independence and he gave his appeal universality by invoking “natural rights” not just British rights…Life, Liberty, Property or pursuit of happiness


New Jersey Plan

A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states; its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts of Congress as the “supreme law” of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power.


pluralism

A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.


ratification

Formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty


representative democracy

A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.


republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting


Second Treatise of Government

Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.


Shay’s Rebellion

Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.


social contract

A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.


state of nature

The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.


Three-fifths Compromise

Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)


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