Visceral Pain – Pharmacology Test

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Visceral Pain – Pharmacology Test

The key terms of Pharmacology Test include, Chronic, Pain, Visceral, Non-Verbral.


Pain Assessment
COLDERR

Character
Onset
Location
Duration
Exacerbation
Relief
Radiation


Pain Assessment
OLDCART

Onset
Location
Duration
Characteristics
Agravating
Relieving
Treatment


Why Use a Pain Scale ???

-Quantify data with a number
-Maintain consistency between ratings
-Make the data objective
-Note: Some facilities may make it policy to use one or more particular scales


Non-Verbal Pain Assessment

-Observe the patient for 3-5 minutes
-Behavioral Pain indicators
–Facial Expressions
–Vocalizations
–Behavior changes


Visceral Pain

Arises from internal organs
Deep aching or sharp stabbing pain


Neuropathic Pain

-Arises from injury to nerves
–Burning, shooting, stabbing
-Abnormal pain processing
–Makes difficult to treat


Types of Pain

-Acute
-Chronic
–Caner Chronic Pain
–Chronic Non-Cancer Pain


Acute Pain

-Short duration (< 3-6 months)
-Identifiable cause
-Acute pain ↓ as healing occurs
-Severity of pain equals acuity of the injury or disease process
-Specific & localized in nature
-Drugs usually work
-Sympathetic nervous system response
–Fight or Flight Response
–hypertension, tachycardia, restlessness, anxiety, diaphoresis/pallor, urinary retention, anxiety/agitation/confusion


Chronic Pain

Caner Chronic Pain
Chronic Non-Cancer Pain
-Pain lasts > than 3-6 months.
-Sometimes identifiable cause
-Pain severity > stage of the injury or disease
-Often periods of waxing and waning
-Requires more and more drug therapy
-Persists beyond healing stage
-NO sympathetic nervous system responses.
-Depression, irritability, flat affect, fatigue, decrease physical activity, withdrawal


Characteristics of Pain
Acute

-Mild to severe
-Sympathetic NS response
-Related to tissue injury
-Restless and anxious
-Reports pain
-Behavior indicative of pain


Chronic

-Mild to severe
-Parasympathetic NS response
-Continues beyond healing
-Depressed and withdrawn
-Does not mention pain
unless asked
-Pain behavior often absent


Pain Relief

-Endorphins
–Morphine-like substance
–Able to “close the gate”


Gate Control Theory

-Theory about how pain is transmitted and blocked
-Proposes that only one pain pathway (gate) is open at one time. The brain therefore does not perceive pain while it is preoccupied with other sensory input.
-Explains how massage, vibration, heat, and cold reduce pain sensations
Melzack & Wall, (1965)


When should you assess for pain?

-on admission
-pain is the 5th vital
-at all encounter with pt
-be alert for pain
-identify pt at risk
-for pain
Don’t wait to be told


Pain Assessment
PQRST

PQRST
Provoking factors
Quality
Region or radiation
Severity or intensity
Time


Pain Assessment
COLDERR

Character
Onset
Location
Duration
Exacerbation
Relief
Radiation


Pain Assessment
OLDCART

Onset
Location
Duration
Characteristics
Agravating
Relieving
Treatment


Why Use a Pain Scale ???

-Quantify data with a number
-Maintain consistency between ratings
-Make the data objective
-Note: Some facilities may make it policy to use one or more particular scales


Non-Verbal Pain Assessment

-Observe the patient for 3-5 minutes
-Behavioral Pain indicators
–Facial Expressions
–Vocalizations
–Behavior changes


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