Polar Nonpolar Ionic Bonds & Lewis Structure – Chemistry

Polar Nonpolar Ionic Chemical Bonds & Lewis Structure

This lesson include different types of bonds such as polar, nonpolar, ionic chemical bonds.

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms togethers is called a(n)

a. dipole
b. Lewis structure
c. chemical bond – correct
d. London force

The electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called

a. dipoles
b. s electrons
c. Lewis electrons
d. valence electrons – correct

The electrostatic attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons permits two atoms to be held together by a(n)

a. chemical bond – correct
b. London force
c. neutron
d. ion

If two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is

a. nonpolar covalent – correct
b. polar covalent
c. dipole covalent
d. coordinate covalent

When atoms share electrons, the electrical attraction of an atom for the shared electrons is called the atom’s

a. electron affinity
b. electronegativity – correct
c. resonance
d. hybridation

If the atoms that share electrons have an unequal attraction for the electrons, the bond is called

a. nonpolar
b. polar
c. ioniccorrect
d. dipolar

What are shared in a covalent bond?

a. ions
b. Lewis structures
c. electronscorrect
d. dipoles

Most chemical bonds are

a. purely ionic
b. purely covalent
c. partly ionic and partly covalentcorrect
d. metallic

Nonpolar covalent bonds are not common because

a. one atom usually attracts electrons more strongly than the other – correct
b. ions always form when atoms join
c. the electrons usually remain equally distant from both atoms
d. dipoles are rare in nature

The greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms, the greater the percentage of _____ in the bond

a. ionic charactercorrect
b. covalent character
c. metallic character
d. electron sharing

A bond that is less than 5% ionic is considered

a. polar covalent
b. ionic
c. metallic character – correct
d. electron sharing

The pair of elements that forms a bond with the least ionic character is

a. Na & Cl
b. K & Cl
c. O and Cl
d. Mg and Cl – correct

The B-F bond in BF3 (electronegativity for B in 2.0; electronegativity for F is 4.0)

a. polar covalent
b. ionic – correct
c. nonpolar covalent
d. metallic

In the three molecules, O2, HCl, and F2, what atom would have a partial negative charge?

a. oxygen
b. hydrogen
c. chlorine – correct
d. fluorine

The percentage ionic character and the type of bond in Br2 (electronegativity for Br is 2.8) is

a. 0% nonpolar covalent
– correct
b. 100% polar covalent
c. 0% pure ionic
d. 100% pure ionic

A neutral group of atoms held together by covalent is a

a. molecular formula
b. chemical formula
c. polyatomic ion
d. molecule – correct

Which of the following shows the types and numbers of atoms joined in a single molecule of a molecular compound?

a. molecular formula – correct
b. potential energy diagram
c. covalent bond
d. ionic bond

Which of the following is not an example of a molecular formula?

a. H2O
b. B – correct
c. NH3
d. O2

Bond length is the average distance between two bonded atoms

a. at which potential energy is at a minimum – correct
b. at which kinetic energy is at a maximum
c. at which potential energy is
d. and equal to one-half the diameter of the electron cloud

In a molecule of fluorine, the 2 shared electrons give each fluorine atom how many electrons in the outer energy level?

a. 1
b. 2
c. 8 – correct
d. 32

The electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2-2s2-2p3. How many more electrons does nitrogen need to satisfy the octet rule

a. 1
b. 3 – correct
c. 5
d. 32

What group of elements satisfies the octet rule without forming compounds?

a. halogen
b. noble gas – correct
c. alkali metal
d. alkaline-earth metal

In drawing a Lewis structure each nonmetal atom except hydrogen should be surrounded by

a. 2 electrons
b. 4 electrons
c. 8 electrons – correct
d. 10 electrons

In drawing a Lewis structure, the central atom is generally the

a. atom with the greatest mass
b. atom with the highest atomic number
c. atom with the fewest electrons
d. least electronegative atom – correct

To draw a Lewis structure, one must know the

a. number of valence electrons in each atom – correct
b. atomic mass of each atom
c. bond length of each atom
d. ionization energy of each atom

After drawing a Lewis structure, one should

a. determine the number of each type of atom in the molecule
b. add unshared pairs of electrons
c. confirm that the total number of valence electrons used equals the number available – correct
d. determine the electronegativity of each atom

Multiple covalent bonds may occur in atoms that contain carbon, nitrogen, or

a. chlorine
b. hydrogen
c. oxygen – correct
d. helium

The substance whose Lewis structure shows three covalent bonds is

a. H2O
b. CH2CL2
c. NH3 – correct
d. CCL4

What is the correct Lewis structure for hydrogen chloride, HCL

A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D – correct

Bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure is

a. polyatomic
b. resonance correct
c. single bonding
d. double bonding

What is placed between a molecule’s resonance structures to indicate resonance?

a. double-headed arrow correct
b. single-headed arrow
c. series of dots
d. Lewis structure

Chemists once theorized that a molecule that contains a single bond and a double bond split its time existing as one of these two structures. This effect became known as

a. alternation
b. resonance correct
c. multiple bonding
d. single-double bonding

The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents the

a. number of atoms in each molecule
b. number of ions in each molecule
c. ratio of the combined ions present in a sample correct
d. total number of ions in the crystal lattice

A formula that shows only the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule is called a(n)

a. molecular formula correct
b. ionic formular
c. Lewis structure
d.covalent formula

The chemical formula for water, a covalent compound, is H2O. This formula is an example of a(n)

a. formula unit
b. Lewis structure
c. ionic formula
d. molecular formula correct

The ions in most ionic compounds are organized into a

a. molecule
b. Lewis structure
c. polyatomic ion
d. crystal correct

In a crystal, the electrons of adjacent ions

a. repel each other correct
b. attract each other
c. neutralize each other
d. have no effect on each other

The energy released when 1 mol of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions is called the

a. bond energy
b. potential energy
c. lattice energy correct
d. energy of crystallization

The lattice energy is a measure of the

a. strength of an ionic bond correct
b. strength of a metallic bond
c. strength of covalent bond
d. net charge on a crystal

Compared with ionic compounds, molecular compounds

a. have higher boiling points
b. are brittle
c. have lower melting points correct
d. are harder

The forces of attraction between molecules in a molecular compound are

a. stronger than the forces among formula units in ionic bonding
b. weaker than the forces among formula units in ionic bonding correct
c. approximately equal to the forces among formula units in ionic bonding
d. zero

Ionic compounds are brittle because the strong attractive forces

a. allow the layers to shift easily
b. cause the compound to vaporize easily
c. keep the surface dull
d. hold the layers in relatively fixed postions correct

The properties of both ionic and molecular compounds are related to the

a. lattice energies of the compounds
b. strengths of attraction between the particles in the compounds correct
c. number of covalent bonds each contains
d. mobile electrons that they contain

How many extra electrons are in the Lewis structure of the phosphate ion, PO43-

a. 0
b. 2
c. 3 correct
d. 4

How many electrons must be shown in the Lewis structure of the hydroxide ion, OH-

a. 1
b. 8 correct
c. 3
d. 4

A chemical bond formed by the attraction between positive ions and surrounding mobile electrons is a(n)

a. nonpolar covalent bond
b. ionic bond
c. polar covalent bond
d. metallic bond correct

Compared with nonmetals, the number of valence electrons in metals is generally

a. smaller correct
b. greater
c. about the same
d. almost trople

In metals, the valence electrons

a. are attached to particular positive ions
b. are shared by all of the atoms correct
c. are immobile
d. form covalent bonds

In metallic bonds, the mobile electrons surrounding the positive ions are called a(n)

a. Lewis structure
b. electron sea correct
c. electron cloud
d. dipole

To appear shiny, a material must be able to

a. form crystals
b. absorb and re-emit light of many wavelengths correct
c. absorb light and change it all to energy as heat
d. change light to electricity

The shiny appearance of a metal is most closely related to the metal’s

a. highly mobile valence electrons correct
b. covalent bonds
c. brittle crystalline strictures
d. positive ions

As light strikes the surface of a metal, the electrons in the electron sea

a. allow the light to pass through
b. become attached to particular positive ions
c. fall to lower energy levels
d. absorb and re-emit the light correct

If a material can be shaped or extended by physical pressure, such as hammering, which property does the material have?

a. conductivity
b. malleability correct
c. ductility
d. luster

Metals are malleable because the metallic bonding

a. holds the layers of ions in rigid positions
b. maximizes the repulsive forces within the metal
c. allows one plane of ions to slide past another correct
d. is easily broken

Which best explains that metals are malleable and ionic crystals are brittle?

a. their chemical bonds correct
b. their London forces
c. their enthalpies of vaporization
d. their net change

Malleability and ductility are characteristic of substances with

a. covalent bonds
b. ionic bonds
c. Lewis structures
d. metallic bonds correct

Shifting the layers of an ionic crystal causes the crystal to

a. be drawn into a wire
b. shatter correct
c. become metallic
d. metallic bonds

VSEPR theory is a model for predicting

a. the strength of metallic bonds
b. the shape of molecules correct
c. lattice energy values
d. ionization energy

The concept that electrostatic repulsion between electron between electron pairs surrounding an atom causes these pairs to be separated as far as possible is the foundation of

a. VSEPR theory correct
b. the hybridization model
c. the electron-sea model
d. Lewis theory

The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies is called

a. VSEPR theory
b. malleability
c. hybridization correct
d. dipole-dipole interaction

Dipole-dipole forces are considered the most important forces in polar substances because the London dispersion forces present in polar substances

a. are no longer present
b. are usually much weaker than the dipole-dipole forces correct
c. are too unpredictable
d. act only in solids

The strong forces of attraction between the positive and negative regions of molecules are called

a. dipole-dipole forces correct
b. London forces
c. lattice forces
d. orbital forces

Compared with molecular bonds, the strength of intermolecular forces is

a. weaker correct
b. stronger
c. about the same
d. too variable to compare

The equal but opposite charges present in the two regions of a polar molecule create a(n)

a. electron sea
b. dipole correct
c. crystal lattice
d. ionic bond

The reason the boiling point of water (H20) is higher than the boiling point of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is partially explained by

a. London forces
b. covalent bonding
c. ionic bonding
d. hydrogen bonding correct

A polar molecule contains

a. ions
b. a region of positive charge and a region of negative charge correct
c. only London forces
d. no bonds

When a polar molecule attracts the electron in a nonpolar molecule

a. a dipole is induced correct
b. a crystal lattice forms
c. an ionic bond forms
d. a Lewish structure forms