Organic Substance & Energy Producer – Biology

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Organic Substance & Energy Producer – Biology

This biology chapter covers organic substance and energy producer.


Stomatic

any body cell expect for sex cells


Biodiversity

Results in stability in an ecosystem. Biodiversity is a measure of the
number and types of organisms that live in an ecosystem


Succession

(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought
about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable
climax is established


Photosynthesis

How most food and oxygen on earth are produced; the energy comes from the sun


Homologous structures

Are structures that derive from the same body part but may have different
forms, i.e. bird wing, bat wing, human arm


Homeostasis

the ability of a living thing to keep conditions inside its body constant


Polymer

large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together


Nutrient Cycle

The movement of materials (nutrients) in a local ecosystem


Organism

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function
independently


Polar

having a pair of equal and opposite charges


Non-polar

not ionic


Charged

term referring to matter having an excess of electrons (a negative charge)
or a deficiency of electrons (a positive charge)


Hydrophobic

Water Fearing


Hydrophillic

Water Loving


Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution


Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances


Covalent Bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a
molecule


Food web

(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food
chains


Trophic levels

The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from
primary producers to primary consumers, secondary consumers and so on.


Autotroph

organism capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances


Food chain

a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being
eaten


Heterotroph

an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition


Producer

an organism that makes its own food


Consumer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms


Herbivore

any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants


Carnivore

any animal that feeds on flesh


Omnivore

an animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances


Decomposer

organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter


10% rule

only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to
the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food
pyramid reduces as you go up.


Greenhouse effect

warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere


Greenhouse Gas

a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared
radiation


Global Climate Change

a change in the world’s climate


Photosynthesis

process by which plants use the sun’s energy to convert water and carbon
dioxide into sugars


Cellular respiration

the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic
moelcules


1st law of Thermodynamics

the law that states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed


2nd law of Thermodynamics

whenever energy is converted from one form to another form some energy is
lost as heat


Evaporation

the process of becoming a vapor


Transpiration

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants


Condensation

the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state


Precipitation

the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or
mist)


Runoff

water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the groundv

Seepage

water that leaks out and slowly moves deeper underground


Root uptake

plant roots absorb the water


Nitrogen Fixation

the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for
plant use on the death of the bacteria


Anaerobic

without oxygen


Aerobic

process that requires oxygen


Law of Conservation of Matter

a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created
or destroyed in an isolated system


Ecological Footprint

A way of measuring how much of an impact a person or community has on the
earth. Someone who uses more natural resources will have a bigger footprint
than someone who uses less.


Water

H2o


Chemical Digestion

chemicals produced by the body break foods into their smaller chemical
building blocks


Mechanical Digestion

Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food


Peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that
moves food along


Chyme

a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach
through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum


Enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.


Catalyst

(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction
without itself being affected


Active site

the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs


Substrate

the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment


Products

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction


calorie

unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure


Calorie

a unit of the energy supplied by food


Mouth

the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge


Saliva

a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous
glands of the mouth


Amylase

any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of
plants


Stomach

an enlarged and muscular sack like organ of the alimentary canal


Esophagus

the passage between the pharynx and the stomach


Small Intestine

digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place


Liver

Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile


Bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder


Gall Bladder

stores bile until needed for digestion


Pancreas

gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with
bile to digest food


Villi

Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that
increase surface area


Large Intestine

the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food
and the remaining material is eliminated from the body


Cecum

the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum
opens


Colon

the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum


Rectum

A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is
compressed into a solid form before being eliminated


Anus

opening of the rectum to the outside of the body


Appendix

a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that
resembles a small pouch


Lock and Key

Model of enzyme activity that explains how a particular enzyme will only fit
with one particular type of substrate.


Activation Energy

the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an
emission or reaction) can occur


Surface Area

the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary


Lipase

an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of
fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream


Trypsin

an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine


Pepsin

Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach


Protease

Enzyme that digests protein


HcL

hydrochloric acid


matter

anything takes up space and has mass


compound

substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio


element

any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance


trace elements

an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts


atom

smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element


neutron

an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom


proton

a subatomic particle with single positive charge found in nucleus of an atom


electron

a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons
move around the nucleus


isotopes

one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number
of neutrons and different in atomic mass


valence electrons

the electrons in the outermost electron shell


chemical bonds

an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell
electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms
gain compounds outer electron shells


covalent bonds

a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence
electrons


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