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Education & Job Achievement – Sociology

This chapter is about education Achievement job -Sociology

A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:

meritocracy – correct

personal achievement

the invisible hand



A stratification system with a governing elite, that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society, is called:

a status hierarchy system

an elite mass dichotomy system – correct

a class system

an estate system

a caste system

___________________ is the notion that everyone is created equal in they eyes of god.

equality of opportunity

equality of condition

equality of outcome

ontological equality – correct

Hernstein and Murray argued that there is a relationship between high IQ and:

good parenting – correct



job status

all of the above

Contrary to Etzioni (1986), Newman’s (1999) research reveals that low wage workers in Harlem:

Were paid pretty high wages

Had better grades than non-workers

Were buffered from the bad environment of non-working people in Harlem – correct

Answers a, b, and c

Answers b and c

What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?

mechanical work

food preparation – correct

factory work

computer programming

In “Born Rich” (2003) Johnson documents the opportunities and constraints that the children of elites encounter in the U.S. Their collective experiences are evidence of:

a culture of poverty

a culture of wealth – correct

cultural pluralism

historical materialism

the iron cage of rationality

Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?

a hierarchy system

a class system – correct

a caste system

an estate system

all of the above

Although Indian castes have historically been _____________, increasing rates of ____________, have made classifying children more difficult:

endogamous; exogamy – correct

rigid; movement

fluid; rigidity

exogamy; endogamy

The ____________ argument was that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from middle class society in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstance.


Culture of Poverty – correct

Economic Restructuring

Economic Independence

A paradox of the educational system is:

education is the only social institution that not all people have access to even though all people pay for it.

education is a social institution that provides everyone with equal opportunities even though students come from a variety of backgrounds.

education is a social institution that stratifies students based on the characteristics of their backgrounds even though it is intended to provide equal opportunity. – correct

education is a social institution that reinforces existing social inequalities of race and ethnicity but equalizes opportunities for male and female students and for students of different socioeconomic backgrounds.

education is a social institution that reinforces existing social inequalities of race and ethnicity but equalizes opportunities for male and female students and for students of different socioeconomic backgrounds.

Data insights report form Porn Hub reveal that:

most people view porn on a mobile device (phone or tablet)

the US is the top country for traffic

Most people view porn on Mondays and in January

All of the Above – correct

Which of the following is most likely to be a functionalist explanation for the increase the number of Americans with college degrees throughout the course of the twentieth century?

Competition for scarce jobs requires that Americans become overqualified for the jobs they want.  

Americans need to become more educated to remain competitive with workers from other countries where students outperform Americans in math and science.    

More education increases the amount of trust individuals have in others and how much they will participate in their communities.     

Jobs have become more skilled and technologically advanced, and a more educated workforce is necessary to fill these jobs. – correct

Results of the Coleman Report were surprising because findings indicated that:

Achievement differences between schools could be explained best by family background and peers with whom children attended school. – correct

Black children would do best in majority black schools.

All Students had similar outcomes

School resources can explain divergent academic achievement

At 9:05 a.m., the bell rings, the children all sit at their desks, and their voices grow quiet. When the teacher stands up, the children do as well. They face an American flag at the front of the room, and they all recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag. When the lessons begin, children raise their hands and wait to be called on before answering the teacher’s questions. These examples of nonacademic socialization can be referred to as:

the silent curriculum

the hidden curriculum – correct

the master curriculum

the invisible curriculum

_______________ is the overemphasis on certificates and degrees as a way of determining social status. _______________ is a contemporary example.

Meritocracy; the implementation of achievement based exams

Credentialism; the requirement of a college degree for an entry level job – correct

The Achievement Gap; the differential achievement in STEM careers by race

The Hidden Curriculum; the tacit knowledge needed to survive the workplace

____________ is used to describe biological differences that distinguish males from females, __________ whereas, __________ denotes a social position.  

sex / gender – correct

gender / sex

biology / institution

endogamy / exogamy

No answer text provided.

According to Besen-Cassino (2013) suburban youth take “bad jobs” in “cool stores” because:

they need money

to escape the over-supervision of their parents in the suburban wasteland – correct

the jobs are a great resume builder

all of the above

What does Etzioni (1986), author of “The Fast Food Factories: McJobs are Bad for Kids,” end his article with:

work in fast food – you will learn a lot

fast food jobs have pros and cons

Go Back to School – correct

Save your Money

No answer text provided.

What factor(s) led to Tiew becoming a “Ping Pong” performer?

Global Inequality

She lost her job in due to a decline in available factory work

The pay for Ping Pong performers is significantly higher than available work – correct

All of the Above

Alameda’s In N Out Burgers recently posted a help wanted sign for sales associates. In 2020 who do you think is likely to apply for these positions? Using one of the perspectives we read on low wage work, what is your advice to these applicants?

High school students are the ones who are more likely to apply for In N Out Burger because you don’t need any prior experience for the job. One advice I would give them would be what Etzioni said “Go back to school – correct

What do Gabler and Kaufmann (2006) argue about what gets students into college?

Gabler and Kaufmann think extracurricular activities, your grades, family background, and test scores is what helps aid students into college – correct