Biological Disorder – Psychology Study

Chapter 1-6 Biological Disorder – Psychology Study

This chapter covers Biological Disorder Psychology Study.


Neo-Freudian theories

Theories based on Freudian principles that emphasize the role of the unconscious and early experience in shaping personality but place less evidence on sexuality as the primary motivating force in personality and are more optimistic concerning the prospects for personality growth and change in personality in adults.


Collective unconscious

According to Carl Jung, a collection of shared ancestral memories


Humanistic psychology

An approach to psychology that embraces the notions of self-esteem, self-actualization, and free will.


Self-concept

The set of beliefs about who we are.


Self-actualization

The motivation to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent.


Unconditional positive regard

Behaviors including being genuine, open to experience, transparent, able to listen to others, and self-disclosing and empathic.


Gene

The basic biological unit that transmits characteristics from one generation to the next.


Instinct

A complex inborn pattern of behaviors that help ensure survival and reproduction


Behavioral genetics

A variety of research techniques that scientists use to learn about the genetic and environmental influences on human behavior by comparing the traits of biologically and nonbiologically related family members.


Family study

A behavioral genetics study that starts with one person who has a trait of interest and examines the individual’s family tree to determine the extent to which other family members also have the trait.


Twin study

A behavioral genetics study in which the data from many pairs of twins are collected and the rates of similarity for identical and fraternal pairs are compared.


Adoption study

A behavioral genetics study that compares biologically related people, including twins, who have been reared either separately or apart.


Molecular genetics

The study of which genes are associated with which personality traits.


Abnormal psychology

The application of psychological science to understanding and treating mental disorders.


Prevalence

The frequency of occurrence of a given condition in a population at a given time.


Psychological disorder

An ongoing dysfunctional pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that causes significant distress, and that is considered deviant in that person’s culture or society.


Bio-psycho-social model of illness

A way of understanding disorder that assumes that disorder is caused by biological, psychological, and social factors.


Comorbidity

A situation that occurs when people who suffer from one disorder also suffer at the same time from one or more other disorders.


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

A document that provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.


Stigma

A disgrace or defect that indicates that person belongs to a culturally devalued social group.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A developmental behavior disorder characterized by problems with focus, difficulty maintaining attention, and inability to concentrate, in which symptoms start before 13 years of age.


Autism spectrum disorder

A disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age.


Anxiety

The nervousness or agitation that we sometimes experience, often about something that is going to happen.


Anxiety disorder

A psychological disturbance marked by irrational fears, often of everyday objects and situations.


Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

A psychological disorder diagnosed in situations in which a person has been excessively worrying about money, health, work, family life, or relationships for at least 6 months, even though he or she knows that the concerns are exaggerated, and when the anxiety causes significant distress and dysfunction.


Panic disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by sudden attacks of anxiety and terror that have led to significant behavioral changes in the person’s life.


Phobia

A specific fear of a certain object, situation, or activity.


Social phobia

Extreme shyness around people or discomfort in social situations.


Agoraphobia

Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available.


Acrophobia

fear of heights


Arachnophobia

fear of spiders


Astraphobia

fear of thunder and lightening


Claustrophobia

fear of closed-in spaces


Cynophobia

fear of dogs


Mysophobia

fear of germs and dirt


Ophidiophobia

fear of snakes


Pteromerhanophobia

fear of flying


Trypanophobia

fear of injections


Zoophobia

fear of small animals


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

A psychological disorder that is diagnosed when an individual continuously experiences distressing or frightening thoughts, and engages in obsessions (repetitive thoughts) or compulsions (repetitive behaviors) in an attempt to calm these thoughts.


Dissociative disorder

A condition that involves disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, and identity.


Dissociative amnesia

A psychological disorder that involves extensive, but selective, memory loss, but in which there is no physiological explanation for the forgetting.


Dissociative fugue

A psychological disorder in which an individual loses complete memory of his or her identity and may even assume a new one, often far from home.


Dissociative identity disorder

A psychological disorder in which two or more distinct and individual personalities exist in the same person, and there is memory disruption regarding personal information about the other personalities.


Mood

The positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences.


Mood (or affective) disorders

Psychological conditions in which the person’s mood influences his or her physical, perceptual, social, and cognitive processes.


Dysthymia

A psychological disorder characterized by mild, but chronic, depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years.


Major depressive disorder (clinical depression)

A psychological disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.


Bipolar disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by swings in mood from overly “high” to sad and hopeless, and back again, with periods of near-normal mood in between.


Schizophrenia

A serious psychological disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, loss of contact with reality, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, social withdrawal, and deterioration of adaptive behavior.


Psychosis

A psychological condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality.


Hallucination

An imaginary sensation that occurs in the absence of a real stimulus or that is a gross distortion of a real stimulus.


Delusion

A false belief not commonly shared by others within one’s culture, and maintained even though it is obviously out of touch with reality.


Personality disorder

A condition characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others that causes problems in personal, social, and work situations.


Borderline personality disorder

A condition characterized by a prolonged disturbance of personality accompanied by mood swings, unstable personal relationships, identity problems, threats of self-destructive behavior, fears of abandonment, and impulsivity.


Antisocial personality disorder (APD)

A condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.


Somatization disorder

A psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long-lasting but seemingly unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause.


Conversion disorder

A psychological disorder in which patients experience specific neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, or paralysis, but where no neurological explanation exists.


Hypochondriasis

A psychological disorder accompanied by excessive worry about having a serious illness.


Factitious disorder

A psychological disorder in which participants fake physical symptoms in large part because they enjoy the attention and treatment that they receive in the hospital.


Sexual dysfunction

A psychological disorder that occurs when the physical sexual response cycle is inadequate for reproduction or for sexual enjoyment.


Hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity


Sexual aversion disorder

Persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all (or almost all) genital sexual contact with a sexual partner


Female sexual arousal disorder

Persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement


Male erectile disorder

Persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection until completion of the sexual activity


Female orgasmic disorder

Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase


Male orgasmic disorder

Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity


Premature ejaculation

Persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it


Dyspareunia

Recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse in either a male or a female


Vaginismus

Recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that interferes with sexual intercourse


Gender identity

Identification with a sex.


Gender identity disorder

A psychological disorder in which the individual displays a repeated and strong desire to be the other sex, a persistent discomfort with one’s sex, and a belief that one was born the wrong sex, accompanied by significant dysfunction and distress.


Paraphilia

A psychological disorder in which sexual arousal is obtained from a consistent pattern of inappropriate responses to objects or people, and in which the behaviors associated with the feelings are distressing and dysfunctional.


Psychotherapy

Professional treatment for psychological disorder through techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight.


Psychodynamic therapy (psychoanalysis)

A psychological treatment based on Freudian and neo-Freudian personality theories in which the therapist helps the patient explore the unconscious dynamics of personality.


Interpretation

A technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist uses the patient’s expressed thoughts to understand the underlying unconscious problems.


Free association

A technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship or filtering.


Dream analysis

A technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist listens while the client describes his or her dreams and then analyzes the symbolism of the dreams.


Insight

An understanding in psychotherapy of the unconscious causes of the disorder.


Resistance

An occurrence in psychotherapy in which the patient uses defense mechanisms to avoid the painful feelings in his or her unconscious.


Transference

An occurrence in psychotherapy in which the patient redirects feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist.


Humanistic therapy

A psychological treatment based on the personality theories of Carl Rogers and other humanistic psychologists.


Person-centered therapy

An approach to treatment in which the client is helped to grow and develop as the therapist provides a comfortable, nonjudgmental environment.


Therapeutic alliance

A relationship between patient and client that occurs when the therapist is genuine, treats the client with unconditional positive regard, and develops empathy with the client.


Cognitive-behavior therapy

A structured approach to treatment that attempts to reduce psychological disorders through systematic procedures based on cognitive and behavioral principles.


Behavioral therapy

Psychological treatment that is based on principles of learning.


Exposure therapy

A behavioral therapy based on the classical conditioning principle of extinction in which people are confronted with a feared stimulus with the goal of decreasing their negative emotional responses to it.


Systematic desensitization

A behavioral treatment that combines imagining or experiencing the feared object or situation with relaxation exercises.


Aversion therapy

A behavioral therapy in which positive punishment is used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior.


Cognitive therapy

A psychological treatment that helps clients identify incorrect or distorted beliefs that are contributing to disorder

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Eclectic therapy

An approach to treatment in which the therapist uses whichever techniques seem most useful and relevant for a given patient.


Biomedical therapies

Treatments designed to reduce psychological disorder by influencing the action of the central nervous system.


Psychostimulants

treats attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)


Antidepressants

treats depression and anxiety disorders


Mood stabilizers

treats bipolar disorder


Bntianxiety disorders

treats anxiety, panic, and mood disorders


Antipsychotics (Neuroleptics)

Schizophrenia


Antidepressant medications

Drugs designed to improve moods.


Antianxiety medications

Drugs designed to help relieve fear or anxiety.


Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)

Drugs that treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders.


Electroconvulsive therapy

A medical procedure designed to alleviate psychological disorder in which electric currents are passed through the brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure.


Transcranial magnetic stimulation

A medical procedure designed to reduce psychological disorder that uses a pulsing magnetic coil to electrically stimulate the brain.


Psychosurgery

Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in the hope of improving disorder.


Group therapy

Psychotherapy in which clients receive psychological treatment together with others.


Self-help group

A voluntary association of people who share a common desire to overcome psychological disorder or improve their well-being.


Community mental health services

Psychological treatments and interventions that are distributed at the community level. The focus of community mental health services is prevention.


Risk factors

The social, environmental, and economic vulnerabilities that make it more likely than average that a given individual will develop a disorder.


Outcome research

Studies that assess the effectiveness of medical treatments.


Meta-analysis

A statistical technique that uses the results of existing studies to integrate and draw conclusions about those studies.


Continuity

We tend to perceive stimuli in smooth, continuous ways rather than in more discontinuous ways.


Closure

We tend to fill
in gaps in an
incomplete
image to create
a complete, whole object.


Depth perception

The ability to perceive three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distance.


Visual cliff

A mechanism that gives the perception of a dangerous drop-off, in which infants can be safely tested for their perception of depth.


Depth cues

Messages from our bodies and the external environment that supply us with information about space and distance.


Binocular depth cues

Depth cues that are created by retinal disparity—that is, the space between our eyes, and thus require the coordination of both eyes.


Convergence

The inward turning of our eyes that is required to focus on objects that are less than about 50 feet away from us.


Monocular depth cues

Depth cues that help us perceive depth using only one eye.


Position

We tend to see objects higher up in our field of vision as farther away.


Relative size

Assuming that the objects in
a scene are the same size,
smaller objects are perceived as farther away.


linear perspective

Parallel lines appear to converge at a distance.


Light and shadow

The eye receives more reflected light from objects that are closer to us. Normally, light comes from above, so darker images are in shadow.


Interposition

When one object overlaps
another object, we view it as closer.


Aerial perspective

Objects that appear hazy, or that are covered with smog or dust, appear farther away.


Beta effect

The perception of motion that occurs when different images are presented next to each other in succession.


Phi phenomenon

The perception of motion caused by the appearance and disappearance of objects that are near each other.


Frequency

The wavelength of a sound wave.


Pitch

The perceived frequency of a sound.


Amplitude

The height of a sound wave.


Loudness

The degree of sound volume.


Decibel

The unit of relative loudness.


Pinna

The external and visible part of the ear.


Tympanic membrane

The membrane at the end of the ear canal that relays vibrations into the middle ear.


Ossicles

The three tiny bones in the ear (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that relay sound from the eardrum to the cochlea.


Cochlea

A snail-shaped liquid-filled tube in the inner ear that contains the cilia.


Oval window

The membrane covering the opening of the cochlea.


Frequency theory

A theory of pitch perception that proposes that nerve impulses corresponding to the pitch of a sound are sent to the auditory nerve.


Place theory

A theory of pitch perception that proposes that different areas of the cochlea respond to different sound frequencies.


Proprioception

The ability to sense the position and movement of our body parts.


Vestibular system

A set of liquid-filled areas in the inner ear that monitors the head’s position and movement, maintaining the body’s balance.


Gate control theory of pain

A theory of pain proposing that pain is determined by the operation of two types of nerve fibers in the spinal cord.


Sensory interaction

The working together of different senses to create experience.


Selective attention

The ability to focus on some sensory inputs while tuning out others.


Sensory adaptation

A decreased sensitivity to a stimulus after prolonged and constant exposure.


Perceptual constancy

The ability to perceive a stimulus as constant despite changes in sensation.


Illusion

The perceptual processes that normally help us correctly perceive the world around us are fooled by a particular situation so that we see something that does not exist or that is incorrect.


Consciousness

The subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.


Biological rhythms

Regularly occurring cycles of behaviors caused by biological factors.


Circadian rhythms

The biological cycle that guides the daily waking and sleeping in many animals.


REM sleep

A sleep stage characterized by the presence of fast eye movements and dreaming.


Non REM sleep

A deep sleep, characterized by very slow brain waves, which is further subdivided into three substages, labeled as stages N1, N2, and N3


Awake

Beta waves happen when you’re in


Drowsy, relaxed

Alpha waves happen when you’re in


Stage N1

Theta waves happen when you’re in


Stage N2

sleep spindles happen when you’re in


Stage N3

delta waves happen when you’re in


Insomnia

A sleep disorder that involves persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep.


Sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing that last at least 10 seconds during sleep.


Narcolepsy

A disorder characterized by extreme daytime sleepiness with frequent episodes of “nodding off.”


Newborns

Need 12-18 hours of sleep


Infants

Need 14-15 hours of sleep


Toddlers

Need 12 -14 hours of sleep


Preschoolers

Need 11-13 hours of sleep


Teens

Need 8.5 – 9.25 hours of sleep


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