Psychology Experiment Final Exam Of Unit 7
This is Psychology Experiment final exam of unit 7.
1. Which of the following items was an independent variable in this experiment? Please select all that apply.
a. The sex of the people on the photos
b. Whether the person in the photo was armed – correct
c. The race of the people in the photos – correct
d. The type of weapon held by the armed people in the photos
e. Whether the participant decides to shoot or not
2. In designing this experimental setup, the researchers were most interested in determining:
a. how quickly the subject could correctly decide to shoot or not.
b. if gun type played a role in the decision to fire or withhold fire.
c. if certain subjects would excel at law enforcement activities over others.
d. how ethnicity/race impacted subjects’ decision to shoot or refrain from shooting.- correct
3. In the published data for this experiment, you can see that decisions were more accurate for armed ________ . When the individual was NOT armed, decisions were more accurate for ________ . In essence, regardless of whether the individual in the picture is carrying a weapon, participants tend to be_________ likely to decide to shoot if the image is of an African American.
armed – African Americans
Not armed- caucasian
participants tend to be- more
4. Suppose that rather than consider how people make decisions about whether someone poses a threat, you want to study whether people can quickly and accurately identify whether someone who has fallen needs help. Considering the kinds of beliefs that many people in our culture have about who would and would not need help, most people would probably select _____ as the person most likely to need help.
a. an elderly, frail-looking person – correct
b. an average-looking middle-aged adult
c. a fit-looking young adult
James is a 68-year-old retired history professor, who has been asked to take over a college class for a week. Although he has practiced with the equipment used in the classroom, he is concerned that any slip in using this computer equipment will confirm the stereotype about older people “not being able to learn new skills, particularly those related to computers.” Because he is anxious and preoccupied about possible problems with the classroom equipment, James actually does experience problems with the computer projection system during his first lecture. Psychologist Claude Steele referred to this as:
a. stereotype threat.- correct
d. cognitive dissonance.
Because of their higher testosterone levels, men are more likely engage in physical aggression than women. This fact supports which theory of aggression?
a. social learning
d. biological – correct
Philip and Joanna have been married for 20 years and are committed to staying married to each other for the rest of their lives. They enjoy spending time together and have many interests and hobbies in common. However, with their busy jobs and taking care of their three teenagers, the passion in their marriage is almost nonexistent. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of love do Philip and Joanna possess?
a. companionate love – correct
b. fatuous love
Vanessa is female, a daughter, and a young adult. The roles that shape her behavior are called __________ roles.
a. ascribed – correct
Deep emotional and/or sexual feelings for another person are called:
c. passion.- correct
d. romantic love.
Your phone rings, and a voice on the line asks if you will answer a short survey about your Internet service. When you agree and spend the next ten minutes answering questions regarding your Internet service, you have just exhibited:
c. compliance.- correct
If the policies of a governmental institution reflect the belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality, then this prejudice is called:
a. heterosexism.- correct
In Nazi Germany, obedient soldiers, who had once been average citizens helped slaughter more than six million people in concentration camps. When confronted with this atrocious act, many of the soldiers rationalized that they were just following orders, that is they:
a. exhibited false attribution to their country.
b. exhibited passive compliance to the Nazi command.
c. succumbed to legitimate persuasion from their superiors.
d. exhibited excessive obedience to an authority.- correct
You have agreed to buy a new car for an attractive low price, then the dealer mentions some extras that you must have and the various city and state taxes that must be added. The price is now becoming much less attractive. This illustrates the:
a. foot-in-the-door effect.
b. door-in-the-face effect.
c. lowball technique.- correct
d. highball technique.
Regarding stereotypes and prejudice, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Stereotypes tend to simplify people into “us” and “them” categories.
b. If evidence against their stereotype builds up, the prejudiced person is likely to change his or her stereotyped belief – correct
c. Because some elements of prejudice are unconscious, they are very difficult to change.
d. Stereotype threat is the anxiety caused by the fear of being judged in terms of a stereotype.
Prosocial behaviors are actions that:
a. change the social behavior of others.
b. may encourage aggression.
c. influence what happens in group situations.
d. are helpful to others.- correct
Which factor of interpersonal attraction refers to how alike you are to another person in background, age, interests, and beliefs?
a. social conformity
c. similarity – correct
Which of the following is a negative emotional attitude tinged with fear, hatred, or suspicion that is held against members of a particular social group?
a. prejudice – correct
c. displaced aggression
A condition in which two or more persons must depend on one another to meet each person’s needs or goals is called:
a. mutual interdependence.- correct
c. an empathy-helping relationship.
d. status inequalities.
Perry believes that Georgia lost her job because she was incompetent when, in reality, the company was just downsizing. Perry has committed:
a. social biasing.
d. the fundamental attribution error.- correct
Regarding human behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. We affiliate to help us think about ourselves by comparing ourselves with others.
b. Humans seek the company of others to alleviate their fear or anxiety.
c. Humans are engaged in a perennial struggle for survival against one another.- correct
d. We cooperate with the people around us at least as much as we are in conflict with them.
Prejudice that occurs due to an adherence to group norms is called:
b. personal prejudice.
d. group prejudice.- correct
According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following statements is TRUE of the mating patterns of men and women?
a. Women are biologically driven to have multiple partners and casual sex.
b. Men place more emphasis on the youth and physical attractiveness of their mates than women.- correct
c. Men tend to be concerned with whether mates will devote time and resources to a relationship.
d. Women place more emphasis on sexual fidelity than men do.
Which researchers conducted the landmark studies on bystander apathy and found that the more potential helpers present, the less likely people are to help?
a. Seyle and Newman
b. Asch and Milgram
c. Darley and Latané – correct
d. Dollard and Miller
We are more likely to comply with a request if:
a. it allows us to reciprocate a prior gift, favor, or service.
b. all of these are present.- correct
c. it is consistent with our previous actions.
d. it comes from someone we know rather than a stranger.
Psychologist Robert Cialdini coined a term to describe the tendency for a person who has refused a major request to later be more likely to comply with a minor request. The term for this compliance approach is called the:
a. door-in-the-face effect.- correct
b. foot-in-the-door effect.
c. highball technique.
d. lowball technique.
In general, we are attracted to people who:
a. we feel superior to or who can be strongly influenced by us.
b. are different from ourselves in many ways.
c. we are familiar with.- correct
d. are honest with us about our faults and shortcomings.
Shared beliefs that tend to trigger hostility between groups include all of the following EXCEPT believing that:
a. they are superior to other groups.
b. they have been unjustly exploited, wronged, or humiliated.
c. other groups are dishonest and a threat.
d. solutions can be reached through cooperation and compromise.- correct
According to your textbook, one of the tenderest prosocial acts would be to:
a. donate money to worthy causes.
b. volunteer one’s time in the community.
c. give blood regularly.
d. show kindness to strangers.- correct
Research on persuasion suggests that attitude change is encouraged when the communicator is:
a. a novice on the topic.
b. an authoritarian personality.
c. likable.- correct
d. dissimilar to the audience in some respect.
Which of the following do therapy groups, businesses, and sports teams seek to increase because it helps people to work together better?
b. group cohesiveness – correct
c. status comparisons
d. group structure
Regarding cues for aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Angry thoughts are considered internal cues for aggression.
b. Murders are much more likely to occur in homes where guns are kept.
c. Aversive stimuli, such as high temperatures, lower one’s overall arousal levels making one less sensitive to aggressive cues.- correct
d. External cues for aggression may include words, actions, and gestures.
A group that professes great devotion to some person and follows that person almost without question with the members typically being victimized by the leaders of this group in various ways is called a:
a. reference group.
b. cult.- correct
c. membership group.
d. political party.
During which stage of brainwashing are prisoners most likely to cooperate with their captors and provide the information requested in order to obtain relief from the abuse and pressure?
b. change – correct
Until your recent hospitalization, you thought that the insurance provided by your company was a good plan. However, after numerous phone calls to your company representative and to the insurance company, your attitude toward a national health care plan has changed. This attitude shift is due to:
a. direct contact.- correct
b. an interaction with others.
c. group membership.
d. the mean worldview.
Unlike friendship, romantic love usually involves:
a. an unbalanced social exchange.
b. lowered emotional arousal.
c. contrasting needs.
d. mutual absorption.- correct
Helping is much more likely when we are able to take the perspective of others and feel sympathy for their plight, a condition known as:
a. cognitive dissonance.
b. a diffusion of responsibility.
c. social comparison.
d. empathic arousal.- correct
Changing one’s behavior just because other people are nearby is the gentlest form of social influence and is called:
b. passive compliance.
c. mere presence.- correct
The study of the adaptive origins of human behavior patterns is called:
a. comparative psychology.
b. interpersonal attraction.
c. pragmatic epistemology.
d. evolutionary psychology.- correct
Excessive self-disclosure is a staple of many television talk shows. Guests frequently reveal intimate details about their personal lives. Viewers probably find such intimate disclosures entertaining rather than threatening, because the:
a. television guests are strangers to the viewer.
b. viewer has been desensitized by watching numerous talk shows and will not feel threatened by overdisclosure as non-TV talk show watchers.
c. viewer does not have to reciprocate with their own self-disclosure to these guests.- correct
d. television guests are viewed as sympathetic individuals who are seeking help from the talk show host.
According to the textbook, which of the following factors is NOT likely to motivate people to help?
a. the perception of yourself as a sad, unfortunate person – correct
b. feeling a connection to the person in need
c. previous experiences of helping others
d. seeing other people engaged in helping others
Meaningful evaluations are based on comparing oneself with people who are:
a. more advanced, but not experts, in the area of comparison.
b. of similar backgrounds and abilities.- correct
d. experts in the area of comparison.
Social learning theory implies that watching a violent show or boxing match on TV:
a. releases tensions.
b. encourages aggression.- correct
c. reduces aggressive urges.
d. allows us to displace our aggression.
If you were sitting alone in your dorm room, picking your nose, and a stranger entered the room, you would probably stop picking your nose due to which form of social influence?
a. mere presence – correct
b. indirect obedience
Jake finds guns attractive and desirable, while Arthur feels that guns are threatening and destructive. Their differing feelings toward guns represent which component of their attitudes regarding guns and gun control?
d. emotional – correct
Regarding bullying, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Bullying is a worldwide phenomenon and occurs among all age groups and in all settings.
b. Bullying can be verbal or physical.
c. To be considered bullying, the aggression must be a direct, “in your face” type of encounter.- correct
d. Childhood bullying can have long-term consequences for the mental health of both bullies and their victims.
In a classic study on social facilitation that involved college students shooting pool at a student union, it was found that when being watched by others, the less confident, average pool players:
a. decreased their accuracy.- correct
b. showed no change in their pool shooting ability.
c. improved their accuracy.
d. became extreme showmen and took risky shots, many of which did not pay off.
All of the following are strategies to prevent groupthink EXCEPT:
a. keeping the group small so a consensus can be reached more easily.- correct
b. encouraging second-chance meetings to rethink important decisions.
c. stating the problem factually.
d. making it clear that group members will be held accountable for decisions.
Regarding prejudice and direct experiences, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Prejudices that occur when members of another social group are perceived as a threat to one’s own interests are referred to as group prejudices.- correct
b. Once prejudices are established, they prevent us from accepting more positive experiences that could reverse the damage.
c. Subtle influences, such as parents’ attitudes, the depiction of people in books and on TV, and exposure to children of other races, can have an impact on one becoming prejudiced.
d. By the time they are three years old, many children show signs of race bias.
Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the presence or actions of others is known as:
a. social influence.- correct
c. the actor-observer bias.
d. social exchange.
Regarding nonassertive behavior, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
a. Nonassertive behavior is characterized by all of these statements.
b. Nonassertive behavior is self-enhancing and maintains one’s self-respect.
c. Nonassertive behavior often achieves the goals intended.
d. Nonassertive behavior often leads to the receiver feeling sympathy, guilt, or contempt for the nonassertive person.- correct
____ is the scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in the presence of others.
a. Social psychology – correct
b. Humanistic psychology
c. Behavioral psychology
d. Personality psychology
____ is the process of making inferences about behavior.
c. Attribution – correct
Prejudice is ____, while discrimination is ____.
a. social; personal
b. an attitude; a behavior – correct
c. a behavior; a norm
d. an opinion; a judgment
Stanley Milgram’s experiment in which a “teacher” gave shocks to a “learner” was actually designed to assess:
a. cognitive dissonance.
c. obedience.- correct