Carbon Cycle & Water Cycle – Star and Sun

Carbon Cycle, Water Cycle on Earth

This chapter is about carbon cycle, water cycle, star, sun and Earth.


The carbon cycle is closely linked to which of the following processes?

  • photosynthesis – correct
  • precipitation
  • condensation
  • evaporation

Which of the following elements accounts for 78 percent of Earth’s atmosphere?

  • nitrogen – correct
  • hydrogen
  • water
  • oxygen

The processes of evaporation, condensation, and transpiration operate in which of the following?

  • water cycle – correct
  • nitrogen cycle
  • oxygen cycle
  • hydrogen cycle

Which layer of the sun is only seen during a total solar eclipse?

  • convective zone
  • core
  • corona – correct
  • photosphere

Which layer of the sun is the hottest?

  • core – correct
  • chromosphere
  • photosphere
  • corona

Why do the planets in our solar system stay in their positions?

  • They travel that the same distance from each other.
  • The sun’s radiation keeps them there.
  • Friction with the atmosphere keeps them from escaping.
  • The sun’s gravity keeps them in place. – correct

Which of the following is a legume?

  • clover – correct
  • wheat
  • corn
  • oats

 What form does nitrogen take in the atmosphere?

  • N – no response givenN
  • NO3–
  • N2 – correct
  • NH4+

Where are the nodules of a legume found?

  • in the stem
  • in the leaves
  • in the flowers
  • in the roots – correct

Which of the following solar phenomena is thought to cause short term climate changes?

  • solar winds
  • prominences
  • solar flares
  • sunspots – correct

Magnetic storms are the result of which of the following?

  • 10- to 11-year cycling of sunspots
  • a solar prominence
  • constant solar wind
  • an increased number of solar wind particles – correct

Why are sunspots dark?

  • They are areas of solid material on the sun.
  • They are warmer than the surrounding gases.
  • They are cooler than the surrounding gases. – correct
  • They are old spots on the sun.

The carbon cycle, closely related to the cycling of oxygen throughout the environment, is tied to which of the following processes?

  • condensation
  • photosynthesis – correct
  • residence
  • the rock cycle

Which of the following is a way that carbon enters the atmosphere?

  • photosynthesis
  • burial of biomass
  • volcanic activity – correct
  • deposition of sediment

Where is the largest reservoir of carbon?

  • soil
  • living things
  • ocean – correct
  • air

During which phase of the moon do we see the entire lighted side of the moon?

  • waning gibbous
  • new moon
  • full moon – correct
  • first quarter

Which term tells us that we are seeing more and more of the lighted portion of the moon?

  • full
  • new
  • waxing – correct
  • waning

How long does it take the moon to rotate on its axis?

  • about 25.3 days
  • about 27.3 days – correct
  • about 30 days
  • about 2 months

When dead animals break down, which of the following is released into the atmosphere?

  • oxygen
  • carbon dioxide – correct
  • calcium
  • greenhouse gases

During  respiration, what do consumers such as animals release?

  • food
  • oxygen
  • water
  • carbon dioxide – correct

What types of sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of dead organisms?

  • igneous
  • clastic
  • chemical – correct
  • oxygenated

During which phase of the moon may a solar eclipse occur?

  • third quarter moon
  • first quarter moon
  • new moon – correct
  • full moon

During which phase of the moon may a lunar eclipse occur?

  • first quarter moon
  • third quarter moon
  • new moon
  • full moon – correct

Which layer of the sun is visible during a total solar eclipse?

  • photosphere
  • core
  • corona – correct
  • chromosphere

Which of the following occurs as water vapor cools in the atmosphere?

  • precipitation
  • condensation – correct
  • transpiration
  • evaporation

What role do plants play in the water cycle?

  • transpiration – correct
  • cooling
  • precipitation
  • condensation

What is the largest source of freshwater on earth?

  • ice sheets, glaciers, and icebergs – correct
  • groundwater
  • large lakes
  • rivers

When do spring tides occur?

  • during a first quarter moon
  • during a waning crescent moon
  • during a waxing gibbous moon
  • during a new moon – correct

What is it called when the moon is closest to earth in its orbit?

  • spring
  • perigee – correct
  • neap
  • apogee

Which of the following is not caused by the moon?

  • eclipses
  • tides
  • sunrise – correct
  • moonrise

Deforestation affects which of the following?

  • water cycle and carbon cycle – correct
  • carbon cycle only
  • none of the cycles
  • water cycle only

Paving a large parking lot could interrupt or hurt which of the following?

  • carbon cycle
  • the Krebs cycle
  • water cycle – correct
  • cellular respiration

Acid rain is caused by which of the following?

  • nitrogen compounds in the air – correct
  • nitrogen compounds in the soil
  • deforestation
  • excess carbon dioxide

Which of the following experiences the least amount of seasonal variation?

  • the Northern Hemisphere
  • the Southern Hemisphere
  • Iceland
  • the equator – correct

When is the Northern Hemisphere tilted away from the sun?

  • March
  • June
  • September
  • December – correct

What is the cause for the seasons?

  • earth’s distance from the sun
  • earth’s tilted axis – correct
  • earth’s orbit around the sun
  • heating of the equatorial regions

Which of the following biogeochemical cycles can be influenced by human activity and cause eutrophication of a local water supply?

  • water cycle
  • oxygen cycle
  • nitrogen cycle – correct
  • carbon cycle

Bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to which of the following in the process of nitrogen fixation?

  • phosphorus
  • nitric acid
  • ammonia – no response given – correct
  • nitrogen gas

The burning of fossil fuels releases which of the following gases into the atmosphere?

  • nitrate
  • nitrogen
  • carbon dioxide – correct
  • oxygen

What role do decomposers play in the cycling of material in a biogeochemical cycle?

  • Decomposers make chemicals from the nonliving environment into organic compounds.
  • Decomposers use nonliving processes such as rain and fire to make inorganic chemicals.
  • Decomposers incorporate some organic compounds into their bodies and release some back to the environment as waste.
  • Decomposers break down organisms to supply the soil, water, and air with inorganic chemicals. – correct

During which of the following steps of the water cycle is water changed from a vapor state to a liquid state?

  • transpiration
  • condensation – correct
  • evaporation
  • precipitation

What impact can deforestation have on the water cycle?

  • Photosynthesis increases, thereby increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.
  • Transpiration declines. – correct
  • Carbon dioxide is released into the air as trees are burned.
  • The amount of nitrogen-fixing bacteria increases.

Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through each of the following processes except one which one?

  • volcanic eruptions
  • photosynthesis – correct
  • burning fossil fuels
  • respiration

The use of fossil fuels is a concern because it can lead to which of the following?

  • increased runoff
  • eutrophication
  • polluted waters
  • global warming – correct

A farmer has concerns about the nitrogen levels in her soils.

What can she do to ensure that the nitrogen bacteria are replenished in the soil?

  • Plant more plants to increase transpiration.
  • Clear cut the area surrounding the field.
  • Plant a crop of legumes, such as clover or alfalfa. – correct
  • Plant a crop of mushrooms to speed up decomposition.

Where is the largest reservoir of carbon on earth located?

  • in the atmosphere
  • in freshwater
  • on land
  • in the oceans – correct

Marine organisms have carbon in their bodies in which of the following forms?

  • pure carbon
  • carbon dioxide
  • calcium carbonate – correct
  • bicarbonate

Carbon in the bodies of marine organisms is often found in which of the following forms?

  • chemical sedimentary rock – correct
  • clastic sedimentary rock
  • layered sedimentary rock
  • igneous rock

Which of the following is the source of energy for the water cycle?

  • gravity
  • volcanic eruptions
  • winds
  • the sun – correct

Which of the following statements about the water cycle is true?

  • Organisms in the biosphere do not influence the water cycle.
  • The water cycle only continues during daylight hours.
  • Precipitation that falls to the ground ends up only as groundwater.
  • Plants play a vital role in the water cycle. – correct

Why is nitrogen fixation such an important step in the nitrogen cycle?

  • Decomposers need to use cap n cap h sub 4 plus.
  • Bacteria convert the fixed nitrogen back into N2.
  • Soil nitrogen is different.
  • Plants can’t use nitrogen in the form of cap n sub 2. – correct

How does deforestation affect the water cycle?

  • It reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • It leads to an increase in eutrophication.
  • It increases the amount of transpiration.
  • It can alter precipitation patterns. – correct

The carbon cycle works in conjunction with which of the following?

  • all biogeochemical cycles
  • nitrogen cycle
  • cycling of oxygen – correct
  • water cycle

Energy from the sun comes from fusion.

What happens during that reaction?

  • Helium turns into hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen turns into helium. – correct
  • Oxygen turns into carbon dioxide.
  • Carbon dioxide turns into oxygen.

Which star is closest to earth?

  • Polaris
  • the sun – correct
  • the Milky Way
  • Sirius

What is the innermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere called?

  • troposphere
  • photosphere – correct
  • chromosphere
  • corona

Using special equipment, which layer of the sun’s atmosphere is visible during a total solar eclipse?

  • photosphere
  • solar flares
  • chromosphere
  • corona – correct

Climate change on earth is thought to be affected by which of the following solar phenomena?

  • solar prominences
  • solar eclipses
  • solar flares
  • sunspots – correct

Which of the following solar phenomena causes magnetic storms?

  • solar flares – correct
  • sunspots
  • solar prominences
  • solar heat

At times during a month, there is no moon visible from earth, even on a clear night. Which phase of the moon is this?

  • new moon – correct
  • first quarter moon
  • third quarter moon
  • full moon

During which phase of the moon is it possible to experience a lunar eclipse?

  • first quarter moon
  • new moon
  • third quarter moon
  • full moon – correct

During which phase of the moon is it possible to experience a solar eclipse?

  • third quarter moon
  • new moon – correct
  • first quarter moon
  • full moon

A certain location on earth experiences a partial solar eclipse.

Which of the following statements is true about that location?

  • The location is in the penumbra of earth’s shadow.
  • The location is in the umbra of earth’s shadow.
  • The location is in the penumbra of the moon’s shadow. – correct
  • The location is in the umbra of the moon’s shadow.

When is it summer in the Northern Hemisphere?

  • when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun – correct
  • during an equinox
  • when neither pole is receiving the most direct sunlight
  • when the Northern Hemisphere is closest to the sun

Which of the following causes the seasons?

  • tilt of earth’s axis – correct
  • distance from the sun
  • revolution of moon around earth
  • rotation of earth on axis

When do both hemispheres receive the same amount of the sun’s energy?

  • only winter solstice
  • only autumnal equinox
  • only vernal equinox
  • both autumnal equinox and vernal equinox – correct

Is this statement true or false?

The gravitational pull of the moonis one of the causes of the daily tidal cycle.

  • true – correct
  • false

Is this statement true or false?

The size of the ocean is one of the causes of the daily tidal cycle.

  • true – correct
  • false

Is this statement true or false?

The gravitational pull of the sunis one of the causes of the daily tidal cycle.

  • true – correct
  • false

Is this statement true or false?

The rotation of earth on axisis one of the causes of the daily tidal cycle.

  • true – correct
  • false

How long is a lunar month?

  • 23.5 days
  • 29.5 days – correct
  • 30 days
  • 365.25 days

Most of the mass of the solar system is located in which of the following?

  • comets
  • sun – correct
  • Jupiter
  • Earth

Which explanation accounts for where rocky planets formed?

  • The inner portions of the disk are warm from the protostar making the heavy elements remain there. – correct
  • The inner portions of the disk are cold from the protostar making the heavy elements remain there.
  • Heavy elements spin into the outer regions of the disk due to their mass.
  • Heavy elements form in the outer regions of the disk due to the spinning protostar.

Which aspect of the nebula hypothesis accounts for the planets orbiting in the same direction and plane?

  • Most material coalesced into the center of the disk.
  • The large cloud of gas and dust collapsed.
  • The outer portions of the disk were cool.
  • The collapsing gas and dust cloud began to spin and form a disk. – correct

Which type of path do planets follow around the sun?

  • ellipse – correct
  • triangle
  • circle
  • square

Which way does the sun’s gravity act on any body in orbit?

  • pulls it forward in its orbit
  • pulls it toward the sun – correct
  • pulls it backward in its orbit
  • pulls it away from the sun

When does a planet have the fastest speed in its orbit?

  • when it has a very low mass
  • when it has a slow rotation
  • when it is farthest from the sun
  • when it is closest to the sun – correct

Small rocky bodies that are thought to be leftover remnants from the formation of the solar system are called __________.

Which term best completes the sentence?

  • comets
  • planets
  • Oort Clouds
  • asteroids – correct

Which part of a comet always points away from the sun?

  • coma
  • nucleus
  • jet
  • tail – correct

Inner planets that are composed mainly of rock and metal are called __________.

Which phrase best completes the sentence?

  • red stars
  • terrestrial planets – correct
  • gas giants
  • dwarf planets

Which of the following planets rotates on its side?

  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Uranus – correct
  • Neptune

Which of the following planets is a terrestrial planet with an iron and nickel core?

  • Mars – correct
  • Neptune
  • Saturn
  • Jupiter

Which of the following parameters can tell you about a planet’s composition?

  • orbit
  • gravity
  • size
  • density – correct

Material thrown out from an impact crater settles to form which of the following structures?

  • central peak
  • rim
  • wall
  • ray – correct

Moon rocks resemble rocks from which of the following layers of the earth?

  • mantle – correct
  • outer core
  • inner core
  • crust

Which of the following best explains why few impact craters are found on earth?

  • Erosion has erased most of the impact craters on earth. – correct
  • Most impacts occurred before earth was formed.
  • Few impacts have occurred on earth.
  • Impacts on earth do not form craters.

Which of the following has the longest wavelength?

  • radio waves – correct
  • microwaves
  • red light
  • infrared light

Which of the following is used in medical imagery?

  • ultraviolet light
  • blue light
  • radio waves
  • X rays – correct

If you wanted to determine the temperature of a star, which measurement would you make?

  • refraction
  • emission spectrum – correct
  • Doppler shift
  • absorption spectrum

Which of the following is true about radio waves?

  • They can penetrate dust clouds. – correct
  • They have short wavelengths.
  • They reveal hot gases.
  • They have high energies.

Which of the following best reduces atmospheric distortion?

  • adaptive optics – correct
  • objective lens
  • eyepiece
  • primary mirror

Which of the following is the correct path of light through a reflecting telescope?

  • eyepiece → primary mirror → secondary mirror → eye
  • primary mirror → secondary mirror → eyepiece → eye – correct
  • secondary mirror → primary mirror → eye → eyepiece
  • primary mirror → eyepiece → secondary mirror → eye

How far is the earth from the sun?

  • 1 light-year
  • 1 kiloparsec
  • 1 AU – correct
  • 1 parsec

What is a light-year?

  • a measurement of time within the universe
  • a measurement of time within the solar system
  • the distance light travels in 1 second
  • the distance light travels in 1 year – correct

Which of the following statements is true?

  • Stars that do not appear to move are very close to earth.
  • The more a star appears to move, the farther it is from earth.
  • The less a star appears to move, the farther it is from earth. – correct
  • Stars that appear to move very much are very far from earth.

Which of the following has the longest life?

  • supernova
  • dwarf star – correct
  • giant star
  • sun

Which type of fusion occurs in the red giant phase of the demise of a sunlike star?

  • helium to hydrogen
  • helium to carbon – correct
  • hydrogen to carbon
  • hydrogen to helium

Which type of telescope would you need to easily see a potential neutron star?

  • infrared
  • X ray – correct
  • visible light
  • ultraviolet

Where would you find the sun on this HR diagram?
 Missing Metadata  
  • A – correct
  • B
  • C
  • D

Which of the following colors would indicate the coolest star?

  • red – correct
  • orange
  • yellow
  • blue

Which of the following stars would be the most luminous?

  • yellow star
  • blue star – correct
  • orange star
  • red star

In what type of star would helium be converted to carbon as the final stage of fusion?

  • high-mass star
  • brown dwarf
  • sun
  • red giant – correct

What might you look for as evidence that fusion occurs inside a star?

  • electrons
  • antiprotons
  • protons
  • neutrinos – correct

What type of fusion occurs in a high-mass star near the end stages of its life cycle?

  • proton-proton chain
  • CNO cycle
  • helium burning
  • helium capture – correct

Which type of galaxy is the Milky Way?

  • satellite
  • irregular
  • elliptical
  • spiral – correct

In which part of the galaxy is the sun located?

  • center
  • spiral arm – correct
  • bulge
  • halo

From which of the following do spiral galaxies form?

  • rapidly spinning protogalactic clouds – correct
  • rapidly cooling protogalactic clouds
  • high-density protogalactic clouds
  • colliding/merging protogalactic clouds

Which wavelength of light is capable of penetrating the dust of a nebula?

  • yellow
  • blue
  • red
  • radio – correct

If the spectrum of a star is blue shifted, which way is the star moving?

  • The star is moving away from you.
  • The star is not moving.
  • You cannot tell from the spectrum.
  • The star is moving toward you. – correct

Which of the following might be evidence for an extrasolar planet?

  • direct visual observation of the planet transiting the star
  • Doppler-shifted stellar spectrum and physics calculations that indicate a low-mass object – correct
  • Doppler-shifted stellar spectrum and physics calculations that indicate a high-mass object
  • X-ray observations emanating from the star

Which of the following indicates that the universe is expanding?

  • The spectra of Cepheid variables, which are found in all galaxies, are red shifted. – correct
  • The spectra of Cepheid variables, which are found only in our galaxy, are blue shifted.
  • The spectra of Cepheid variables, which are found only in our galaxy, are red shifted.
  • The spectra of Cepheid variables, which are found in all galaxies, are blue shifted.

The hydrogen-to-helium ratio is an important piece of evidence for the big bang.

What is the minimum hydrogen-to-helium ratio observed?

  • 1:1
  • 2:1
  • 3:1 – correct
  • 4:1

If the amount of dark matter and energy is above the critical level, what will happen to the fate of the universe?

  • The universe will stop expanding and collapse in a big crunch. – correct
  • The expansion of the universe will slow but continue.
  • The expansion of the universe will stop, and its volume will remain the same.
  • The universe will expand at an accelerated rate.

Which explanation of the solar system best fits the observations of the planets and how they orbit the sun?

  • A comet hit the sun and sent off fragments that became the planets.
  • The gravity of a large, massive star passing the sun ripped off blobs of material from it that formed the planets.
  • The planets formed at the center of a collapsing spinning cloud of gas and dust.
  • The sun and planets formed from a collapsing spinning cloud of gas and dust. – correct

Refer to the illustration to answer Question.

Which of the following was formed from leftovers in the solar system?

Carbon Cycle & Water Cycle - Star and Sun
  • the comet – correct
  • the sun
  • the planets in the upper left corner
  • the planets to the right of the sun

Which scientist determined that the farther a planet is from the sun, the longer it takes to orbit the sun?

  • Doppler
  • Copernicus
  • Kepler – correct
  • Halley

Which object is made of frozen gas, ice, and dust that orbits in the outermost reaches of the solar system?

  • meteor
  • planet
  • Kuiper Belt object – correct
  • moon

Which of the following is true for both gas planets and terrestrial planets?

  • They have moons orbiting them.
  • They rotate in the same direction.
  • They are a round shape. – correct
  • They have rings.

Which feature indicated a period of heavy bombardment followed by a period of low bombardment in our solar system?

  • the high crater density of the lunar maria
  • the low crater density of the lunar maria – correct
  • the low crater density of the lunar highlands
  • the high crater density of the lunar highlands

Refer to the illustration to answer the Question.

Which of the following has the highest energy?

Carbon Cycle & Water Cycle - Star and Sun     
- Gamma Rays wavelength
  • gamma rays – correct
  • visible light
  • X rays
  • microwaves

Which path is the correct path of light through a reflecting telescope?

  • primary mirror→secondary mirror→eyepiece→eye – correct
  • primary mirror→eyepiece→secondary mirror→eye
  • eyepiece→primary mirror→secondary mirror→eye
  • secondary mirror→primary mirror→eye→eyepiece

Which of the following would you expect to see in the death of a star that is less than 0.5 solar mass?

  • white dwarf – correct
  • red giant
  • planetary nebula
  • supernova

When a sunlike star’s hydrogen runs out, at first it expands into __________.

Which phrase best completes the sentence?

  • a red giant – correct
  • a supergiant
  • a star similar to our sun
  • a white dwarf

Which type of radiation would you look for in a star to demonstrate that nuclear fusion was occurring inside?

  • visible light
  • gamma rays – correct
  • infrared radiation
  • radio waves

Which classification describes the Milky Way?

  • irregular
  • regular spiral
  • elliptical
  • barred spiral – correct

Which object would best be identified by a periodic Doppler shift in a star’s spectrum along with a dip in the star’s light intensity?

  • nebula
  • comet
  • planet – correct
  • black hole

How do scientists know that the universe is expanding?

  • The galaxies are moving away from each other, and the temperatures are decreasing. – correct
  • The galaxies are moving toward each other, and the temperatures are increasing.
  • The galaxies are moving toward each other, and the temperatures are decreasing.
  • The galaxies are moving away from each other, and the temperatures are increasing.

During which season and at what latitude does the sun not set?

  • fall and 23°N
  • spring and 0°N
  • winter and greater than 66°N
  • summer and greater than 66°N – correct

Refer to the illustration to answer the Question.

At what position of the earth in its orbit is it summertime in the Northern Hemisphere?

  • position 1 – correct
  • position 2
  • position 3
  • position 4

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