Founder Of Islam – Religious Studies

Founder Of Islam – Religious Studies

This chapter covers Founder Of Islam – Religious Studies.


Bedouins

nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsula’s desert


Muhammad

Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam


Hegira

Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina


Islam

religion founded by Muhammad; literally “to surrender”


Qur’an

sacred text of Islam, considered Allah’s direct revelation


Muslims

followers of Islam


Five Pillars of Islam

obligations required of all Muslims – Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage


Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca


Mosque

name for the building where Muslims worship


Jihad

word that can be translated as “struggle for the faith” or can also mean the struggle to defend Islam.


Abu Bakr

successor to Muhammad as leader of Islam


Caliphate

Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.


Caliph

title given to leaders of Islam after Muhammad, means “successors”


Astrolabe

instrument for finding the positions and movements of stars and planets


Sunni

a Muslim group that accepts the descendants of the Umayyads as the true rulers of Islam, largest branch of Islam.


Shia

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad


Minarets

tall towers found on mosques from which the faithful were called to prayer


Calligraphy

beautifully styled writing that is a distinctive feature of Islamic art


Christendom

Christian society that included most of western Europe


Medieval

times of the Middle Ages, marked by doubt, suffering, and hardship for many


Monasticism

voluntary separation from society to dedicate one’s life to God


Papal States

a region in central Italy ruled by the Pope


Knights

highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback


Fief

land given to a knight in exchange for his services


Vassal

a person who accepts a fief from a lord


Feudal System

the political and social system of exchanging land for service


Manorial system

an economic system built around large estates called manors


Magna Carta

document that restricted the king of England’s power, considered to be the first step toward democracy in England


Parliament

governing body that was the result of the king’s council in the 1260s and which still makes England’s laws today


Reconqusita

Christian leaders’ effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors


Crusades

a series of religious wars launched by European Christians in the Middle Ages


Hanseatic League

a group of cities and towns in northern Germany that worked together to promote and protect trade


Credit

the promise of later payment for goods bought


Guilds

trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products


Apprentice

someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft


Journeyman

a person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters


Black Death

a devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351


Serfs

people who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked


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