Estate Jacobin – History Exam

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Estate Jacobin – History Exam

The key terms of History chapter include, Jacobin, Estate, Assembly, Church.


Who were the Jacobin’s?

– The Jacobin club was established in Versailles during the Estates-General of 1789.
– It followed the National Constituent Assembly to Paris, where it cemented it’s headquarters and base of operations.
– It expanded it’s membership to include those not in the Assembly.
– The Jacobins were a radical, left-wing political organization with the goals of providing universal sufferage, strong central government, public education, separation of church and state.


What happened on September 1791?

– In September 1791 a new constitution was introduced. The Legislative Assembly due to the division created by suspicion replaced the National Assembly.
– The radical elements accused the moderates of collaborating with the King.
– The Legislative Assembly allowed the Jacobins and the Girondins to gain more influence.
– Was formed in Paris but were also organized in the provinces too.


What were the Jacobins priorities?

– The fate of the king: many called for his execution while others favored negotiation
– Threat from royalist sympathizers within France: Jacobins used a policy of terror against anybody suspected of being a danger to the revolution.
– Progress in the revolutionary wars: Turned the ride after bad progress against Austria and Prussia, they used Carnot’s army with the help of effective co-operation between the opposing forces, which fought as individual units rather than a cohesive army. They were able to take initiative against Austria and Prussia.


Who were the Girondins?

– Originally from the south of France, supported the rights of provinces to influence the revolutionary movement.
– They were opposed by those who regarded Paris as the center of Revolution e.g. San Culottes.
– Girondins and Jacobins were united by a hatred of the church and a desire to end upper-class privilege.
– After the Flight to Varennes, the Girondins continued to encourage negotiation with Louis XVI- a policy not popular with other revolutionary groups.
– The Girondins lost both power and influence; many of them were arrested and some were even executed as a result of their policy.
– Power mostly went into the hands of the Jacobins and their influential leader Maximilien Robespierre.


What was “The Estate System”

– Louis XVI agreed to call a meeting of the estate generals to address the country’s financial problem.
– The advisory comprised representatives of three estates
French society had traditionally be divided in:
– The First Estate: the church
– The Second Estate: The nobility (willing to embrace reforms but the majority resisted change).
– The Third Estate: everybody else, majority of peasants and the middle class (sought change with no aim of revolution)


How was The Estate System divided?

– The assembly had last been divided in 1614; few people really understood either its procedures or the extent of its powers.
– Each estate had the same number of votes in the Estate General- the church and nobility (traditional allies) could join forces to outvote the Third Estate, blocking any reforms.
– In 1789, the first estate comprised of 10,000 clergy, the second estate of 400,000 nobles while the third estate represented 25 million. The third estate demanded voting should reflect the membership of the classes.
– After 3 months, the third estate was granted double its number of representatives in the estates general, meetings began in May 1789


How did Louis XVI react to the Revolution?

– Louis XVI believed these problems were temporary, but accepted the changes to prevent any disorder. Although unrest continued.
– A march headed by several thousand women went to Versailles and forced the royal family to return to Paris.
– Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were greeted with cheers on their return, the King however had to acknowledge formally the reforms introduced by the Assembly.
– Foreign Ambassador reported that France was ruled by Paris mob.


Who were the counter-revolutionaries and who opposed the Revolution?

– Counter-revolutionaries included the king, the royal family, almost all of the nobility and the higher clergy.
– Several foreign governments also opposed the revolution a they were afraid that success of the revolution would bring out rebellion in their own countries.


What did the hardline counter- revolutionaries believe in?

Hardline counter-revolutionaries thought the King should oppose any reforms to restore the Ancien Regime.


What did the moderate counter- revolutionaries believe in?

The moderate counter-revolutionaries felt that certain reforms were reasonable and believed that the king should accept some limits on his power. They looked at the king for leaderships but Louis XVI was indecisive and failed to take a firm stand.


What did the lower classes/people of France believe in?

Lower classes had many grievances against the Ancien Regime but their remedies were vague at best.
– People of France demanded equality, liberty, security and land ownership without offering detail on how it should be implemented.


What was the state of the counter-revolutionaries and revolutionaries?

– Those who opposed the revolution were weakly organized with no clear program of action for suppressing the rebellion and regaining control.
– Revolutionaries lacked strong leadership and a clear agenda for reforms.
– After the royal family was brought to Paris from Versailles the revolution moved uncertainly.
– Either side made little progress in the first months of the revolution.


Who was Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette?

A French nobleman- he favored moderate reform and helped to draw the Declarations of the Rights of Man.
– Came to conflict in the Radical revolutionaries but was arrested and spent 5 years in prison until Napoleon’s rule.
– Was suggested to act as an intermediary between the king and the revolutionaries but he expressed little enthusiasm for representing the demands of the radical revolutionaries.


Who were the Jacobin’s?

– The Jacobin club was established in Versailles during the Estates-General of 1789.
– It followed the National Constituent Assembly to Paris, where it cemented it’s headquarters and base of operations.
– It expanded it’s membership to include those not in the Assembly.
– The Jacobins were a radical, left-wing political organization with the goals of providing universal sufferage, strong central government, public education, separation of church and state.


What happened on September 1791?

– In September 1791 a new constitution was introduced. The Legislative Assembly due to the division created by suspicion replaced the National Assembly.
– The radical elements accused the moderates of collaborating with the King.
– The Legislative Assembly allowed the Jacobins and the Girondins to gain more influence.
– Was formed in Paris but were also organized in the provinces too.


What were the Jacobins priorities?

– The fate of the king: many called for his execution while others favored negotiation
– Threat from royalist sympathizers within France: Jacobins used a policy of terror against anybody suspected of being a danger to the revolution.
– Progress in the revolutionary wars: Turned the ride after bad progress against Austria and Prussia, they used Carnot’s army with the help of effective co-operation between the opposing forces, which fought as individual units rather than a cohesive army. They were able to take initiative against Austria and Prussia.


Who were the Girondins?

– Originally from the south of France, supported the rights of provinces to influence the revolutionary movement.
– They were opposed by those who regarded Paris as the center of Revolution e.g. San Culottes.
– Girondins and Jacobins were united by a hatred of the church and a desire to end upper-class privilege.
– After the Flight to Varennes, the Girondins continued to encourage negotiation with Louis XVI- a policy not popular with other revolutionary groups.
– The Girondins lost both power and influence; many of them were arrested and some were even executed as a result of their policy.
– Power mostly went into the hands of the Jacobins and their influential leader Maximilien Robespierre.


What was “The Estate System”

– Louis XVI agreed to call a meeting of the estate generals to address the country’s financial problem.
– The advisory comprised representatives of three estates
French society had traditionally be divided in:
– The First Estate: the church
– The Second Estate: The nobility (willing to embrace reforms but the majority resisted change).
– The Third Estate: everybody else, majority of peasants and the middle class (sought change with no aim of revolution)


How was The Estate System divided?

– The assembly had last been divided in 1614; few people really understood either its procedures or the extent of its powers.
– Each estate had the same number of votes in the Estate General- the church and nobility (traditional allies) could join forces to outvote the Third Estate, blocking any reforms.
– In 1789, the first estate comprised of 10,000 clergy, the second estate of 400,000 nobles while the third estate represented 25 million. The third estate demanded voting should reflect the membership of the classes.
– After 3 months, the third estate was granted double its number of representatives in the estates general, meetings began in May 1789


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