Speed Distance & Mass Metric System – Physics

Speed Distance & Mass Metric System - Physics

Speed Distance & Mass Metric System – Physics

This chapter covers speed distance and mass metric system of physics.


Newton

What is forced expressed as in the metric system


Parallelogram

To find the net result of two vectors we use the ___ rule


Resolution

The process of determining the components of a vector is called


Inertia

The tendency of objects to resist changes in motion


Mass

Is a measure of sluggishness of objects to resist changes in thEir motion


Kilogram

The metric system unit for this measurement of sluggishness


Mass, net force

The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the ___ of an
object and directly proportional to the ___ _____ acting on the object


G

When the net force acting on an object is the forc of gravity only the
acceleration of the object is


Constant

When an object falls through air, the net force is equal to th vector sum of
the force of gravity downward and the force of air resistance up ward. When
these forces are equal, objects falls at a ____ speed


Even

The total number of forces existing in the universe at any one time must be
( even or odd)


Mechanical equilibrium

the state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces
cancel to zero and no acceleration occurs


Static equilibrium

The type of equilibrium that exists when an object is not moving. Net force=
zero.


Dynamic equilibrium

A form of equilibrium where opposing forces balance each other out, and the
system as a whole does not change.


1/2at^2

D=


ViT+1/2at^2

D= (monster formula)


At

V=


Vi +at

Vf


Newton’s First Law

The Law of Inertia


Newton’s Second Law

Fnet = ma


Newton’s Third Law

For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force


Contact Forces

Forces that result from direct physical contact between objects


Field Forces

Forces that exist between objects in the absence of physical contact


Contact Force Examples

Friction force, Normal force, Tension force


Field Force Examples

Magnetic force, Gravity force, Electrical force


Inertia

Tendency of an object to maintain its state of motion


Equilibrium

The state of a car moving in constant velocity or at rest


Acceleration

The state of motion if a nonzero net force acting on the car


Force

Acceleration is directly proportionate to this quantity


Mass

Acceleration is inversely proportionate to this quantity


Weight

Measure of the force of gravity on an object


Newtons

Units used for the force of gravity of an object


Mass (measure)

measure of the quantity of matter of an object


Kg

Units used for the quantity of matter of an object


107,00 kilometers per hour

how we are moving relative to the sun


Galileo

credited with being the first to measure speed by considering the distance
covered and the time it takes


speed

defined as the distance covered per unit of time, how fast something moves


speed equation

distance/time


slash symbol (/)

is read as per and means divided by


instantaneous speed

is the speed at any instant


average speed equation

total distance covered/time interval


total distance covered equation

average speed x time


velocity

how fast an object is going and in what direction, we need to know both the
speed and the direction of an object for this


vector quantity

a quantity in physics that specifies a direction and a magnitude is called
this


constant speed

means steady speed


constant velocity

means motion in a straight line at a constant speed


acceleration

is how quickly velocity changes; the change in velocity, also is not just
the total change in velocity but also the time rate of change or the change per
second in velocity, and it applies to decreases as well as increases in
velocity (changes in both speed and direction


acceleration equation

change in velocity/time interval


change

the key idea that defines acceleration


deceleration

a large decrease per second in the velocity of a car


curved path

when we accelerate because our direction is changing


speed an velocity

are commonly used interchangeably when straight-line motion is being
considered


acceleration equation (along a straight line)

change in speed/time interval


Galileo

developed the concept of acceleration in his experiments on inclined planes,
and found greater accelerations for steeper inclines


velocity acquired equation

acceleration x time


instantaneous speed or velocity

are at any time simply equal to the acceleration multiplied by the number of
seconds it has been changing


no air resistance

all objects can fall with the same unchanging acceleration


free fall

when a falling object is free of all restraints- no friction, with the air
or otherwise- and falls under the influence of gravity alone, the object is in
this state


free fall equation

during each second of fall, the object gains a speed of 10 meters per
second, and the gain per second is its acceleration


velocity acquired in free fall from rest equation

v=gt


instantaneous speed is zero

at its highest point, when it is changing its direction of motion upward to
downward


the object slows as it rises

during the upward part of this motion


negative sign

downward velocities have this


distance traveled equation

1/2(acceleration x time x time), ?=1/2gt squared


unequal acceleration

is a common observation that many objects fall with


air resistance

is the fact that is responsible for these different accelerations, it also
appreciably alters the motion of things like feathers


speed or velocity

is how we specify on how fast something is falling, and it is expressed as
v=gt


a rate of a rate

is what makes acceleration so complex


0.6 meters

if you jump higher than this than you are exceptional


airborne

no amount of leg or arm pumping or other bodily motion can change your hang
time when you are this


when airborne

the jumpers horizontal speed remains constant while the vertical speed
undergoes acceleration


Motion is
described _____ to something

relative


True or
False: Speed is a measure of how fast something is moving

True


Speed is the
rate at which distance is covered, and it is measured in units of _____ divided
by time

distance


_________
speed is the speed at any instant

instantaneous


True or
False: Average speed is the total acceleration covered divided by the time
interval

False


True or
False: Velocity is speed together with direction

True


Velocity is
constant only when speed and _____ are both constant

direction


______ is
the rate at which velocity is changing with respect to time

acceleration


An object
accelerates when its speed is _____, when its speed is ______, and/ or when its
direction is changing

increasing;
decreasing


True or
False: Acceleration is measured in units of velocity divided by time

False


An object in
free fall has a constant acceleration of about ___m/s

10


Units

systems giving context to numbers


Length

meter (m)


Mass

kilogram (kg)


Force

newton (N)


Time

second (s)


Work

joule (J)


Energy

joule (J)


Power

watt (W)


giga

(G or B), 10^9


mega

(M), 10^6


kilo

(k), 10^3


centi

(c), 10^-2


milli

(m), 10^-3


micro

(µ), 10^-6


nano

(n), 10^-9


pico

(p), 10^-12


Scientific Notation

a method of writing very large or very small numbers by using powers of ten;
0.0000000004 = 4x 10^-10 or
500,000,000,000,000 = 5 x 10^14


Significand

the number before the power of 10 in scientific notation, such as the number
5 in the scientific notation 5 x 10^14


Scientific Notation Multiplications

multiply the significands and then add the exponents;
(4 x 10^-10)(5 x 10^14) = 2 x 10^5
– multiplying 4 by 5 = 20 (converted to 2)
– adding -10 and 14 = 4


Scientific Notation Divisions

divide the significand in the numerator (top) by the significand in the
denominator (bottom) and then subtract the exponent in the denominator from the
exponent in the numerator;
(4 x 10^-10) / (5 x 10^14) = 8 x 10^-25
– dividing 4 by 5 = 0.8 (convert to 8)
– subtracting 14 from -10 = -24


Scientific Notation Raised to a Power

raise the significand to that power and then multiply the exponent by that
number;
(6.0 x 10^4)^2 = 3.6 x 10^9
– squaring (^2) 6.0 = 36.0 (convert to 3.6)
– multiplying 4 by 2 (10^4 x 2) = 8


Scientific Notation Additions

exponents must always be the same (if not convert one), and then add the
significands together;
3.7 x 10^4 + 1.5 x 10^3 = 3.9 x 10^4
– converting 1.5 x 10^3 = 0.15 x 10^4
– adding 3.7 and 0.15 = 3.85 (round to 3.9)


Scientific Notation Subtractions

exponents must always be the same (if not convert one), and then subtract
the significands;
3.7 x 10^4 – 1.5 x 10^3 = 3.6 x 10^4
– converting 1.5 x 10^3 = 0.15 x 10^4
– subtracting 1.5 from 3.7 = 3.55 (round to 3.6)


sin θ

SOH
= opposite / hypotenuse
= y / h


cos θ

CAH
= adjacent / hypotenuse
= x / h


tan θ

TOA
= opposite / adjacent
= y / x


Trigonometric Functions

the ratio relationship between the sides of right triangles


Logarithm

the power to which a base such as 10 (log) or “e” (ln) must be
raised to get the desired number;
– log 45 = X (10^x = 45), so X = 1.6532
– ln 45 = Y (e^y = 45), so Y = 3.8067


Natural Log (“e”)

“e” = ln = 2.71828


Vectors

numbers that have both magnitude and direction, such as displacement,
velocity, acceleration, and force


Scalars

numbers that have magnitude only, such as disctance, speed, energy,
pressure, and mass


Resultant (R)

the sum or difference of two or more vectors


Pythagorean Theorem

X² + Y² = V² or, V = √X² + Y²
V = any vector (use V as the hypotenuse)
X = x component of vector V
Y = y component of vector V


Kinematics

branch of Newtonian mechanics that deals with the description of objects in
motion which allows us to describe an objects velocity, speed, acceleration,
and position with respect to time


Displacement (x)

an object in motions overall change in its position in space


Velocity (ν)

a vector quantity whose magnitude is speed and whose direction is the
direction of motion;
v = displacement (x) / time (t)
SI units = meters/second (m/s)


Average Velocity

average velocity (v, with a line over it) = Δx / Δt


Speed (s)

the rate of actual distance traveled in a given unit of time:
s = distance (d) / time (t)


Instantaneous Velocity

the average velocity as the change in time approaches zero;
v = limΔx / Δt


Acceleration (a)

a vector quantity of the rate of change of velocity over time;
a = Δv / Δt


Average Acceleration

average acceleration (a, with a line over it) = Δv / Δt


Instantaneous Acceleration

the average acceleration as the change in time approaches zero;
a = limΔv / Δt


Linear Motion

the objects velocity and acceleration are along the line of motion. The
pathway of the moving object is literally a straight line (one-dimensional
motion), but not limited to vertical or horizontal paths


Acceleration due to Gravity (g)

g = 9.8 m/s²


Constant Acceleration

an object in motion who’s velocity is changing due to a constant force being
applied


Kinematics Equations

the five equations applied to objects in motion with constant acceleration;
v = v0 + at
x – x0 = v0t + (at² / 2)
v² = v0² + 2a(x – x0)
average v = (v0 + v) / 2
Δx = (average v)(t) = [(v0 + v) / 2] t


Projectile Motion

an object in motion that follows a path along two dimensions and the
velocity and acceleration are in two directions (usually horizontal and
vertical) and separate from each other


Free Fall

objects in linear motion experiencing acceleration equal to that of gravity,
discounting air resistance


Momentum

the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity.
A moving object can have a large momentum if it has a large mass, a high speed,
or both.
It is harder to stop a large truck than a small car when both are moving at the
same speed.
The truck has more momentum than the car. By momentum, we mean inertia in
motion.


Momentum Equation

momentum = mass × velocity
momentum = mv
When direction is not an important factor,
momentum = mass × speed


Impulse

The quantity force × time interval is called impulse.
A force sustained for a long time produces more change in momentum than does
the same force applied briefly.
Both force and time are important in changing an object’s momentum.
When you push with the same force for twice the time, you impart twice the
impulse and produce twice the change in momentum.


Impulse Changes Momentum

The change in momentum depends on the force that acts and the length of time
it acts.
If the momentum of an object changes, either the mass or the velocity or both
change.
The greater the force acting on an object, the greater its change in velocity
and the greater its change in momentum.
A glass dish is more likely to survive if it is dropped on a carpet rather than
a sidewalk. The carpet has more “give.”
Since time is longer hitting the carpet than hitting the sidewalk, a smaller
force results.
The shorter time hitting the sidewalk results in a greater stopping force.
The safety net used by circus acrobats is a good example of how to achieve the
impulse needed for a safe landing.
The safety net reduces the stopping force on a fallen acrobat by substantially
increasing the time interval of the contact.


Impulse Equation

impulse = F × t
The greater the impulse exerted on something, the greater will be the change in
momentum.
impulse = change in momentum
Ft = ∆(mv)


Increasing Momentum

To increase the momentum of an object, apply the greatest force possible for
as long as possible.
A golfer teeing off and a baseball player trying for a home run do both of
these things when they swing as hard as possible and follow through with their
swing.
The force of impact on a golf ball varies throughout the duration of impact.


Decreasing Momentum

If you were in a car that was out of control and had to choose between
hitting a haystack or a concrete wall, you would choose the haystack.
Physics helps you to understand why hitting a soft object is entirely different
from hitting a hard one.
If the change in momentum occurs over a long time, the force of impact is
small.
If the change in momentum occurs over a short time, the force of impact is
large.


Bouncing

Cassy imparts a large impulse to the bricks in a short time and produces
considerable force. Her hand bounces back, yielding as much as twice the
impulse to the bricks.
The curved blades of the Pelton Wheel cause water to bounce and make a U-turn,
producing a large impulse that turns the wheel.


Conservation of Momentum

The momentum before firing a cannon is zero. After firing, the net momentum
is still zero because the momentum of the cannon is equal and opposite to the
momentum of the cannonball.


Law of Conservation of Momentum

Describes the momentum of a system
If a system undergoes changes wherein all forces are internal, the net momentum
of the system before and after the event is the same. Examples are:
atomic nuclei undergoing radioactive decay,
cars colliding, and
stars exploding.


Elastic Collisions

When a moving billiard ball collides head-on with a ball at rest, the first
ball comes to rest and the second ball moves away with a velocity equal to the
initial velocity of the first ball.
Momentum is transferred from the first ball to the second ball.
When objects collide without being permanently deformed and without generating
heat, the collision is an elastic collision.
Colliding objects bounce perfectly in perfect elastic collisions.
The sum of the momentum vectors is the same before and after each collision.


Terminal Velocity

the constant velocity of a falling object when the force (net force = 0) of
air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of
gravity

What change in momentum does the cart undergo?

25 kg x m/s Change in momentum is equal to impulse.


If a the mass of the cart is 2 kg and the cart is initially at rest,
calculate its final speed.

5 kg·m/s divided by 2kg = 12.5 m/s
Momentum is equal to mass multiplied by velocity. The change in momentum is 25
kg·m/s and since it started at rest, then this is equal to its final momentum.
To get velocity we divide momentum by mass.


A 2-kg blob of putty at 3 m/s slams into a 2 kg blob of putty at rest
Calculate the speed of the two stuck-together blobs of putty immediately after
colliding.

Momentum of the system before the
collision was 6 kg·m/s, and since momentum has to be conserved the momentum
after collision has to be 6 kg·m/s. The mass after
the collision is 4 kg, so the velocity after the collision is 1.5 m/s


Calculate the speed of the two blobs is the one at rest was 4 kg.

The momentum of the system before the collision was 6 kg·m/s, and since
momentum has to be conserved, the momentum after the collision has to be 6
kg·m/s. The total mass after the collision in this case would be 6 kg, making
the velocity 1 m/s.


When you ride a bicycle at full speed and the bike stops suddenly, why do
you have to push hard on the handlebars to keep from flying forward?

So that the reaction force of the handlebars on you will produce a
backward-acting impulse.


In terms of impulse and momentum, why are air bags in automobiles a good
idea?

In a crash you lose all momentum. Your change in momentum is equal to
impulse. Impulse is force multiplied by time. The air bag makes your collision
with the dashboard take longer so there is less force to hurt you.


Why is it difficult for a firefighter to hold a hose that ejects large
amounts of water at high speed?

The hose tends to recoil from the ejected water.


You can’t throw a raw egg against a wall without breaking it, but you can
throw it at the same speed into a sagging sheet without breaking it. Explain.

The sheet makes the collision take longer, and therefore there is a smaller
force on the egg. Remember that the impulse is equal to the change in momentum.
The change in momentum is defined by the mass and velocity, neither of which
are changed by how you stop the egg. So this means that the only way to
decrease the force on the egg is to increase the time it takes to change the
momentum, the sheet does this nicely.


Suppose you roll a bowling ball into a pillow and the ball stops. Now
suppose you roll it against a spring and it bounces back with an equal and
opposite momentum. Which object exerts a greater impulse, the pillow or the
spring?

The spring because the forward momentum is stopped and an equal and opposite
backward momentum is created, making the impulse twice as big because there is
twice as much change in momentum.


If the time it takes the pillow to stop the ball is the same as the time of
contact of the ball with the spring, how do the average forces on the ball
compare?

The force of the spring is twice as big. We know this because we found in
part a that the impulse is double. Impulse is time multiplied by force. If the
time is the same and the impulse is double that means that the force has to be
double.


If you topple from your tree house, you’ll continuously gain momentum as you
fall to the ground below. Doesn’t this violate the law of conservation of
momentum? Defend your answer.

If the system is you and the Earth, then your momentum toward Earth is equal
and opposite to Earth’s momentum toward you. There is no net change in momentum
because while you’re falling down, Earth is falling (much less noticeably) up.


A bug and the windshield of a fast-moving car collide. Indicate whether each
of the following statements is true or false.

The forces of impact on the bug and on the car are the same size. True
The impulses on the bug and on the car are the same size. True
The changes in speed of the bug and of the car are the same. False the changes
of speed are very different due to the different masses and resulting
accelerations.
The changes in momentum of the bug and of the car are the same size. True,
since the impulses are of the same size.


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