Scientific Revolution & Church Doctrine – World History

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Scientific Revolution, Church, Theory, World, Doctrine, Heliocentric, Catholic, History

The key terms in these history chapters include Scientific Revolution, Church, Theory, World, Doctrine, Heliocentric, Catholic, Reformation, Astronomer, Absolutism, Protestant, Culture, Trade, Three laws of Planetary Motion, History.


The Scientific Revolution

-Transformed society and changed the way people looked at the natural world
-In doing so, science came into direct conflict with the teachings of the Church
-Began in the 16th century
-Important people: Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton


Nicolaus Copernicus

-Astronomer
-Challenged the Church doctrine of a geocentric (earth-centered) theory of the universe (Ptolemy’s theory; was the prevailing thought for more than 1,000 years)
-Believed that the sun was the center of the solar system, and the earth moved around it
-Proposed and published his heliocentric (sun-centered) theory
-Theories were rejected by the Catholic Church


Galileo Galilei

-Mathematician, physicist, astronomer
-With a telescope, provided the first observational evidence in support of Copernicus
-Observed the phases of Venus; discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter; observed and analyzed sunspots
-Was questioned before the Inquisition, the primary purpose of which was to eradicate heresy and strengthen the Catholic Church
-In 1633, fearing execution, he recanted the heliocentric view of the solar system


Johannes Kepler

-Mathematician, astronomer
-Believed God had created the world according to an intelligible plan and that man could understand this plan through application of reason
-“Three laws of Planetary Motion”—mathematical calculations regarding planetary orbits that supported heliocentric theory (the motion of planets around the sun)


Isaac Newton

-Mathematician, physicist, and astronomer
-The most influential scientist of the Enlightenment
-Described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
-Showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation; thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution


The (Protestant) Reformation

-Renaissance secularism created tension between princely kingdoms and the authority of the Church
-There also emerged within the Church questions about its worldly rather than spiritual interest in acquiring power and wealth
-This internal struggle led to a rift in the Church, the rise of Protestant faiths, and more than a century of religious warfare


Reasons for the Reformation

-Dissatisfaction with church ritual and Latin overtones
-Humanism emphasized man’s needs and concerns
-The printing press allowed mass communication (Luther’s 95 Theses were translated, widely copied, distributed throughout Europe)
-Luther’s excommunication


Martin Luther

-1483-1546, Northern Germany
-Rejection of hierarchical priesthood and papal authority
-Questioned the right of the pope to grant indulgences (full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven)
-Salvation through faith rather than sacraments
-Luther’s “Ninety-five Theses” served as a catalyst in starting the Reformation
-Luther’s excommunication initiated the Reformation; Lutheranism developed its own following
-Lutheranism decentralized religious authority; allowed for a state church system controlled by individual local German princes


John Calvin

-Geneva, Switzerland
-The Doctrine of Predestination (God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others) was central to Calvinistic belief
-Rejection of all forms of worship and practice not traced to Biblical tradition
-Calvinism became a revolutionary anti-Catholic movement
-Basis of “Reformed Churches,” which spread throughout Europe; Calvinism made Protestantism an international movement


The English Reformation

The First Act of Supremacy (1534) marked the beginning of the English Reformation.
-The king of England, Henry VIII, became the head of the church
-The pope’s refusal to annul the marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon initiated the break (political rather than religious break with the Church)
-Created the Anglican Church of England
-Elizabeth I (1558-1603) firmly established Protestantism in England and secured the Anglican Church


The Counter Reformation

-Also known as the Catholic Reformation
-Attempted to halt the spread of Protestantism
-The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) became the first official Catholic response to the Reformation; Jesuits also initiated missionary and educational endeavors
-The Council of Trent (1545-63) defined the doctrines of Catholicism and reinforced papal authority


Effects of the Reformation

-The medieval political unity of Europe was replaced by the spirit of modern nationalism
-The authority of the state was strengthened
-The middle class was strengthened
-Calvinism gave capitalism its psychological base
-Religious wars reflected the fervor of the times


The Age of Reason/Enlightenment

-The disintegration of traditional feudal loyalties, the rise of powerful monarchies, and the collapse of a single religious doctrine caused European intellectuals to think about new ways of unifying and governing nation-states
-Their exploration of new ideas in the “Age of Reason” was encouraged by the exciting processes and discoveries of the scientific revolution


Philosophy influenced by the Age of Reason

-Christianity and church dogma were questioned
-The proper function of government was defined by Voltaire, Montesquieu, Locke, and Rousseau. Their ideas led to the philosophical bases for the American and French revolutions.
-In economics, the doctrine of “laissez faire” (limited government intervention in business affairs) stood in opposition to regulated trade
-Adam Smith wrote the “Wealth of Nations” (1776) and advocated manufacturing as the true source of a nation’s wealth (the laws of the market place and not government regulations dictate national economies); considered the father of modern economics


John Locke

-An English philosopher
-Believed that people made a contract with their government to protect natural writes
-Wrote about the inalienable writes to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
-His political ideas had a dramatic impact on the development of democratic political thought in the late 18th century; influenced both the United States “Declaration of Independence” (1776) and the French “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” (1789)
-Stood in direct contrast to absolutism, the prevailing doctrine of the time


Absolutism

-Refers to the absolute rule of monarchs with unlimited power
-The theory of absolute monarchs and the divine right of kings (rule by God’s will)
-Evolved from the limited power of the ruling class during the Middle Ages to the Age of Absolutism in the 16th-18th century


Enlightened despotism

-Also called enlightened absolutism
-Grew out of the earlier absolutism of Louis XIV (France) and Peter the Great (Russia)
-Advocated limited responsibility to God and church
-A form of absolutism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment


Neoclassicism

-Dominated the culture of the 18th century
-There was an attempt to revive the classic style and form of ancient Greece and Rome
-In literature, the novel was the outcome; in architecture, the Rococo style was dominant
-In music, Haydn and Mozart emphasized the Classical era’s formal symmetrical structures, simple rhythms, and tuneful melodies. Beethoven influenced both the Classical and Romantic periods.


The Scientific Revolution

-Transformed society and changed the way people looked at the natural world
-In doing so, science came into direct conflict with the teachings of the Church
-Began in the 16th century
-Important people: Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton


Nicolaus Copernicus

-Astronomer
-Challenged the Church doctrine of a geocentric (earth-centered) theory of the universe (Ptolemy’s theory; was the prevailing thought for more than 1,000 years)
-Believed that the sun was the center of the solar system, and the earth moved around it
-Proposed and published his heliocentric (sun-centered) theory
-Theories were rejected by the Catholic Church


Galileo Galilei

-Mathematician, physicist, astronomer
-With a telescope, provided the first observational evidence in support of Copernicus
-Observed the phases of Venus; discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter; observed and analyzed sunspots
-Was questioned before the Inquisition, the primary purpose of which was to eradicate heresy and strengthen the Catholic Church
-In 1633, fearing execution, he recanted the heliocentric view of the solar system


Johannes Kepler

-Mathematician, astronomer
-Believed God had created the world according to an intelligible plan and that man could understand this plan through application of reason
-“Three laws of Planetary Motion”—mathematical calculations regarding planetary orbits that supported heliocentric theory (the motion of planets around the sun)


Isaac Newton

-Mathematician, physicist, and astronomer
-The most influential scientist of the Enlightenment
-Described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
-Showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation; thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution


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